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Author (up) Harris, A.K.P.; Williamson, N.R.; Slater, H.; Cox, A.; Abbasi, S.; Foulds, I.; Simonsen, H.T.; Leeper, F.J.; Salmond, G.P.C. file  url
openurl 
  Title The Serratia gene cluster encoding biosynthesis of the red antibiotic, prodigiosin, shows species- and strain-dependent genome context variation Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Microbiology (Reading, England) Abbreviated Journal Microbiology  
  Volume 150 Issue Pt 11 Pages 3547-3560  
  Keywords Bacterial Proteins/genetics; Blotting, Southern; DNA Fingerprinting; DNA, Bacterial/chemistry/isolation & purification; DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics; Gene Order; *Genes, Bacterial; *Genetic Variation; Molecular Sequence Data; Multigene Family; Open Reading Frames; Peptide Synthases/genetics; Polyketide Synthases/genetics; Prodigiosin/*biosynthesis; Sequence Analysis, DNA; Sequence Homology, Amino Acid; Serratia/*genetics/*metabolism; Streptomyces coelicolor/genetics  
  Abstract The prodigiosin biosynthesis gene cluster (pig cluster) from two strains of Serratia (S. marcescens ATCC 274 and Serratia sp. ATCC 39006) has been cloned, sequenced and expressed in heterologous hosts. Sequence analysis of the respective pig clusters revealed 14 ORFs in S. marcescens ATCC 274 and 15 ORFs in Serratia sp. ATCC 39006. In each Serratia species, predicted gene products showed similarity to polyketide synthases (PKSs), non-ribosomal peptide synthases (NRPSs) and the Red proteins of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Comparisons between the two Serratia pig clusters and the red cluster from Str. coelicolor A3(2) revealed some important differences. A modified scheme for the biosynthesis of prodigiosin, based on the pathway recently suggested for the synthesis of undecylprodigiosin, is proposed. The distribution of the pig cluster within several Serratia sp. isolates is demonstrated and the presence of cryptic clusters in some strains shown. The pig cluster of Serratia marcescens ATCC 274 is flanked by cueR and copA homologues and this configuration is demonstrated in several S. marcescens strains, whilst these genes are contiguous in strains lacking the pig cluster.  
  Call Number Serial 1607  
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Author (up) Shanks, R.M.Q.; Lahr, R.M.; Stella, N.A.; Arena, K.E.; Brothers, K.M.; Kwak, D.H.; Liu, X.; Kalivoda, E.J. file  url
openurl 
  Title A Serratia marcescens PigP homolog controls prodigiosin biosynthesis, swarming motility and hemolysis and is regulated by cAMP-CRP and HexS Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 8 Issue 3 Pages e57634  
  Keywords Bacterial Proteins/*genetics/metabolism; Depsipeptides/*biosynthesis/genetics/pharmacology; Erythrocytes/drug effects; *Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial; Genetic Complementation Test; Hemolysis/drug effects; Hexosyltransferases/genetics/metabolism; Humans; Membrane Proteins/genetics/metabolism; Movement/drug effects; Mutation; Operon; Prodigiosin/*biosynthesis; Sequence Homology, Amino Acid; Serratia marcescens/*genetics/metabolism; Signal Transduction; Transcription Factors/*genetics/metabolism  
  Abstract Swarming motility and hemolysis are virulence-associated determinants for a wide array of pathogenic bacteria. The broad host-range opportunistic pathogen Serratia marcescens produces serratamolide, a small cyclic amino-lipid, that promotes swarming motility and hemolysis. Serratamolide is negatively regulated by the transcription factors HexS and CRP. Positive regulators of serratamolide production are unknown. Similar to serratamolide, the antibiotic pigment, prodigiosin, is regulated by temperature, growth phase, HexS, and CRP. Because of this co-regulation, we tested the hypothesis that a homolog of the PigP transcription factor of the atypical Serratia species ATCC 39006, which positively regulates prodigiosin biosynthesis, is also a positive regulator of serratamolide production in S. marcescens. Mutation of pigP in clinical, environmental, and laboratory strains of S. marcescens conferred pleiotropic phenotypes including the loss of swarming motility, hemolysis, and severely reduced prodigiosin and serratamolide synthesis. Transcriptional analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assays place PigP in a regulatory pathway with upstream regulators CRP and HexS. The data from this study identifies a positive regulator of serratamolide production, describes novel roles for the PigP transcription factor, shows for the first time that PigP directly regulates the pigment biosynthetic operon, and identifies upstream regulators of pigP. This study suggests that PigP is important for the ability of S. marcescens to compete in the environment.  
  Call Number Serial 1612  
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Author (up) Sole, M.; Rius, N.; Francia, A.; Loren, J.G. file  url
openurl 
  Title The effect of pH on prodigiosin production by non-proliferating cells of Serratia marcescens Type Journal Article
  Year 1994 Publication Letters in Applied Microbiology Abbreviated Journal Lett Appl Microbiol  
  Volume 19 Issue 5 Pages 341-344  
  Keywords *Hydrogen-Ion Concentration; Prodigiosin/*biosynthesis; Proline Oxidase/metabolism; Serratia marcescens/growth & development/*metabolism  
  Abstract The synthesis of prodigiosin by non-proliferating cells of Serratia marcescens was examined at various pH values between 5.5 and 9.5. During incubation in unbuffered medium, pH changed and prodigiosin production was similar regardless of the initial pH. Variations in pigment production were noted when buffers were employed in cultures of non-proliferating cells. The optimum pH for prodigiosin production was 8.0-8.5. Proline oxidase was also measured. The results suggest that the effect of pH may be related to the amount of proline which can be incorporated into prodigiosin.  
  Call Number Serial 1609  
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