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Author (up) Adachi, R.; Osada, H.; Shingai, R. file  url
openurl 
  Title Phase-dependent preference of thermosensation and chemosensation during simultaneous presentation assay in Caenorhabditis elegans Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication BMC Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal BMC Neurosci  
  Volume 9 Issue Pages 106  
  Keywords Animals; Caenorhabditis elegans; Chemotactic Factors; Chemotaxis--physiology; Choice Behavior; Cold Temperature; Pentanols; Psychomotor Performance--physiology; Sensation; Sensory Receptor Cells--physiology; Sodium Chloride; Thermosensing--physiology  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Multi-sensory integration is necessary for organisms to discriminate different environmental stimuli and thus determine behavior. Caenorhabditis elegans has 12 pairs of amphid sensory neurons, which are involved in generating behaviors such as thermotaxis toward cultivation temperature, and chemotaxis toward chemical stimuli. This arrangement of known sensory neurons and measurable behavioral output makes C. elegans suitable for addressing questions of multi-sensory integration in the nervous system. Previous studies have suggested that C. elegans can process different chemoattractants simultaneously. However, little is known about how these organisms can integrate information from stimuli of different modality, such as thermal and chemical stimuli. RESULTS: We studied the behavior of a population of C. elegans during simultaneous presentation of thermal and chemical stimuli. First, we examined thermotaxis within the radial temperature gradient produced by a feedback-controlled thermoregulator. Separately, we examined chemotaxis toward sodium chloride or isoamyl alcohol. Then, assays for simultaneous presentations of 15 degrees C (colder temperature than 20 degrees C room temperature) and chemoattractant were performed with 15 degrees C-cultivated wild-type worms. Unlike the sum of behavioral indices for each separate behavior, simultaneous presentation resulted in a biased migration to cold regions in the first 10 min of the assay, and sodium chloride-regions in the last 40 min. However, when sodium chloride was replaced with isoamyl alcohol in the simultaneous presentation, the behavioral index was very similar to the sum of separate single presentation indices. We then recorded tracks of single worms and analyzed their behavior. For behavior toward sodium chloride, frequencies of forward and backward movements in simultaneous presentation were significantly different from those in single presentation. Also, migration toward 15 degrees C in simultaneous presentation was faster than that in 15 degrees C-single presentation. CONCLUSION: We conclude that worms preferred temperature to chemoattractant at first, but preferred the chemoattractant sodium chloride thereafter. This preference was not seen for isoamyl alcohol presentation. We attribute this phase-dependent preference to the result of integration of thermosensory and chemosensory signals received by distinct sensory neurons.  
  Call Number Serial 262  
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Author (up) Martin, L.F.; Kem, W.R.; Freedman, R. file  url
openurl 
  Title Alpha-7 nicotinic receptor agonists: potential new candidates for the treatment of schizophrenia Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Psychopharmacology Abbreviated Journal Psychopharmacology (Berl)  
  Volume 174 Issue 1 Pages 54-64  
  Keywords Acoustic Stimulation/methods; Animals; Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use; Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/drug therapy/etiology; Benzylidene Compounds/therapeutic use; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15/genetics; Clozapine/therapeutic use; Evoked Potentials, Auditory/drug effects; Humans; Neural Inhibition/drug effects; Nicotinic Agonists/*therapeutic use; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics; Pyridines/therapeutic use; Receptors, Nicotinic/drug effects/genetics/*physiology; Schizophrenia/complications/*drug therapy; Sensation Disorders/drug therapy/etiology; alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor  
  Abstract RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE: Auditory sensory gating, a biological measurement of the ability to suppress the evoked response to the second of two auditory stimuli, is diminished in people with schizophrenia. Deficits in sensory gating are associated with attentional impairment, and may contribute to cognitive symptoms and perceptual disturbances. This inhibitory process, which involves the alpha(7) nicotinic receptor mediated release of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by hippocampal interneurons, represents a potential new target for therapeutic intervention in schizophrenia. METHOD: This paper will review several lines of evidence implicating the nicotinic-cholinergic, and specifically, the alpha(7) nicotinic receptor system in the pathology of schizophrenia and the evidence that alpha(7) nicotinic receptor agonists may ameliorate some of these deficits. RESULTS: Impaired auditory sensory gating has been linked to the alpha(7) nicotinic receptor gene on the chromosome 15q14 locus. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of the promoter region of this gene are more frequent in people with schizophrenia. Although nicotine can acutely reverse diminished auditory sensory gating in people with schizophrenia, this effect is lost on a chronic basis due to receptor desensitization. Clozapine is able to reverse auditory sensory gating impairment, probably through an alpha(7) nicotinic receptor mechanism, in both humans and animal models with repeated dosing. The alpha(7) nicotinic agonist 3-2,4 dimethoxybenzylidene anabaseine (DMXBA) can also enhance auditory sensory gating in animal models. DMXBA is well tolerated in humans and improves several cognitive measures. CONCLUSION: Alpha-7 nicotinic receptor agonists appear to be reasonable candidates for the treatment of cognitive and perceptual disturbances in schizophrenia.  
  Call Number Serial 1883  
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Author (up) Persinger, M.A.; Healey, F. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Experimental facilitation of the sensed presence: possible intercalation between the hemispheres induced by complex magnetic fields Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease Abbreviated Journal J Nerv Ment Dis  
  Volume 190 Issue 8 Pages 533-541  
  Keywords Adult; Analysis of Variance; Awareness/*physiology; Bereavement; Brain/*physiology; Dreams/physiology/psychology; Electromagnetic Fields; Female; Functional Laterality/*physiology; Humans; *Magnetics; Male; Memory/physiology; Parapsychology/*methods; Parietal Lobe/physiology; Sensation/physiology; Sex Factors; Temporal Lobe/physiology  
  Abstract This experiment was designed to test the hypothesis that the sensed presence, the feeling of a proximal sentient being, can be evoked within the laboratory. Under double-blind conditions, 48 university men and women were exposed to weak (100 nT to 1 muT), complex, pulsed magnetic fields that were applied primarily over the right temporoparietal region, primarily over the left temporoparietal region, or equally across both hemispheres (one treatment per group) for 20 minutes while wearing opaque goggles in a very quiet room. A fourth group was exposed to a sham-field condition. Subjects who received greater stimulation over the right hemisphere or equal stimulation across both hemispheres reported more frequent incidences of presences, fears, and odd smells than did the subjects who received greater stimulation over the left hemisphere or who were exposed to the sham-field condition. The results suggest that the sensed presence is subject to experimental manipulation. This experimental procedure could be employed to explore the idea that the experience of a sensed presence is a resident property of the human brain and may be the fundamental source for phenomena attributed to visitations by gods, spirits, and other ephemeral phenomena.  
  Call Number Serial 559  
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Author (up) Wang, H.; Siemens, J. file  url
openurl 
  Title TRP ion channels in thermosensation, thermoregulation and metabolism Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Temperature (Austin, Tex.) Abbreviated Journal Temperature (Austin)  
  Volume 2 Issue 2 Pages 178-187  
  Keywords BBB, blood-brain barrier; CFO, circumferential organ; DRG, dorsal root ganglion; POA/AH, preoptic area and anterior hypothalamus; TG, trigeminal ganglion; TRP ion channels; TRP, transient receptor potential; Tb, body core temperature; dorsal root ganglion; hypothalamus; nociception; somatosensation; temperature homeostasis; thermoregulation; thermosensation  
  Abstract In humans, the TRP superfamily of cation channels includes 27 related molecules that respond to a remarkable variety of chemical and physical stimuli. While physiological roles for many TRP channels remain unknown, over the past years several have been shown to function as molecular sensors in organisms ranging from yeast to humans. In particular, TRP channels are now known to constitute important components of sensory systems, where they participate in the detection or transduction of osmotic, mechanical, thermal, or chemosensory stimuli. We here summarize our current understanding of the role individual members of this versatile receptor family play in thermosensation and thermoregulation, and also touch upon their immerging role in metabolic control.  
  Call Number Serial 1712  
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