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Author (up) Ardiel, E.L.; Rankin, C.H. file  url
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  Title C. elegans: social interactions in a “nonsocial” animal Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Advances in Genetics Abbreviated Journal Adv Genet  
  Volume 68 Issue Pages 1-22  
  Keywords Animals; Behavior, Animal; Caenorhabditis elegans/genetics/*physiology; Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins/genetics; Ecosystem; Female; Genetics, Behavioral; Male; Pheromones/physiology; Social Behavior  
  Abstract As self-fertilizing nematodes, Caenorhabditis elegans do not normally come to mind when one thinks of social animals. However, their reproductive mode is optimized for rapid population growth, and although they do not form structured societies, conspecifics are an important source of sensory input. A pheromone signal underlies multiple complex behaviors, including diapause, male-mating, and aggregation. The use of C. elegans in sociogenetics research allows for the analysis of social interactions at the level of genes, circuits, and behaviors. This chapter describes natural polymorphisms in mab-23, plg-1, npr-1, and glb-5 as they relate to two C. elegans social behaviors: male-mating and aggregation.  
  Call Number Serial 1074  
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Author (up) Baldwin, H.A.; File, S.E. file  url
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  Title Caffeine-induced anxiogenesis: the role of adenosine, benzodiazepine and noradrenergic receptors Type Journal Article
  Year 1989 Publication Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior Abbreviated Journal Pharmacol Biochem Behav  
  Volume 32 Issue 1 Pages 181-186  
  Keywords 2-Chloroadenosine; Adenosine/analogs & derivatives/pharmacology; Alprazolam/analogs & derivatives/pharmacology; *Anxiety; Caffeine/*toxicity; Chlordiazepoxide/pharmacology; Clonidine/pharmacology; Flumazenil/pharmacology; Motor Activity/drug effects; Muscle Relaxants, Central/pharmacology; *Norepinephrine; Propranolol/pharmacology; Receptors, Adrenergic/*physiology; Receptors, GABA-A/*physiology; Receptors, Purinergic/*physiology; Social Behavior  
  Abstract The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism by which caffeine increases anxiety. Rats were tested in the social interaction test of anxiety after administration of caffeine (20 or 40 mg/kg) alone or in combination with various compounds. In order to investigate the role of adenosine receptors, caffeine was given in combination with 2-chloroadenosine (0.1 and 1 mg/kg). To investigate the role of benzodiazepine receptors, chlordiazepoxide (5 mg/kg), a benzodiazepine antagonist, flumazenil (RO 15-1788, 1 and 10 mg/kg) and a triazolobenzodiazepine U-43,465 (32 mg/kg) were used. Finally, an alpha 2-receptor agonist, clonidine (0.1 and 0.025 mg/kg) and a beta-adrenoceptor antagonist, DL-propranolol (5 mg/kg), were used to study the role of noradrenergic systems in the effects of caffeine. Caffeine (20 and 40 mg/kg) reduced the time spent in social interaction and this effect was antagonized by chlordiazepoxide, U-43,465 and DL-propranolol, but not by flumazenil, 2-chloroadenosine or clonidine. It was therefore concluded that the anxiogenic effect of caffeine was unlikely to be due to its effects at adenosine or benzodiazepine receptors. It is suggested that the reversal of caffeine's effects by chordiazepoxide may have been “functional,” i.e., merely a cancellation of two opposite effects. It is discussed whether the reversal of caffeine's effects by propranolol and U-43,465 are functional, or reflect a noradrenergic site of action.  
  Call Number Serial 1184  
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Author (up) Bhattacharya, S.K.; Satyan, K.S.; Chakrabarti, A. file  url
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  Title Anxiogenic action of caffeine: an experimental study in rats Type Journal Article
  Year 1997 Publication Journal of Psychopharmacology (Oxford, England) Abbreviated Journal J Psychopharmacol  
  Volume 11 Issue 3 Pages 219-224  
  Keywords Animals; Anxiety/*chemically induced; Caffeine/antagonists & inhibitors/*pharmacology; Central Nervous System Stimulants/*pharmacology; Drug Tolerance; Exploratory Behavior/*drug effects; Male; Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors/*pharmacology; Rats; Rats, Wistar; Social Behavior; Substance Withdrawal Syndrome; Yohimbine/antagonists & inhibitors/pharmacology  
  Abstract The anxiogenic action of caffeine (10, 25 and 50 mg/kg, i.p.) was investigated in rats and compared with that of yohimbine (2 mg/kg, i.p.). The experimental methods used were the open-field, elevated plus-maze, social interaction and novelty-suppressed feeding latency tests. Caffeine produced a dose-related profile of behavioural changes, which were qualitatively similar to those induced by yohimbine and which indicate an anxiogenic activity in rodents. Thus, both the drugs reduced ambulation and rears, and increased immobility and defaecation in the open-field test. They decreased the number of entries and time spent on the open arms of the elevated-plus maze, reduced social interaction in paired rats and increased the feeding latency in an unfamiliar environment in 48-h food-deprived rats. Lorazepam, a well known benzodiazepine anxiolytic agent, attenuated the anxiogenic effects of caffeine and yohimbine. Subchronic administration of caffeine (50 mg/kg, i.p.) for 21 days, in different groups of animals, induced a significant degree of tolerance in the elevated plus-maze test, which was statistically significant after 14 and 21 days' treatment. Yohimbine, however, did not induce similar tolerance. When caffeine (50 mg/kg, i.p.) was withdrawn after 21 days' administration, to a separate group of rats, significant withdrawal anxiety was observed 48 h later as noted in the elevated plus-maze test. The investigations support clinical evidence of caffeine-induced anxiety, tolerance to anxiety on continued use, and withdrawal anxiety in chronic caffeine-containing beverage users.  
  Call Number Serial 1531  
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Author (up) de Waal, F.B. file  url
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  Title The organization of agonistic relations within two captive groups of Java-monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) Type Journal Article
  Year 1977 Publication Zeitschrift fur Tierpsychologie Abbreviated Journal Z Tierpsychol  
  Volume 44 Issue 3 Pages 225-282  
  Keywords Age Factors; Aggression; Animals; Behavior, Animal/*physiology; Competitive Behavior/*physiology; Fear; Female; Haplorhini; Humans; Macaca/*physiology; Macaca fascicularis/*physiology; Male; Sex Factors; Social Behavior; Social Dominance  
  Abstract The paper offers a detailed quantitative descripition of the distribution of agonistic activities over the members of two groups of Java-monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). These groups lived in captivity and were well-established: i.e. they had an extensive network of genealogical relationships. The study pays special attention to agonistic interactions with three or more participants. Its main purpose is an analysis of the way dyadic agonistic relations (e.g. dominance relations) are affected by third group members and the relations among these. The paper presents data on the ontogeny of 'dependent dominance', the 'control role' of the alpha-male, and the functions of different types of alliances.  
  Call Number Serial 126  
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Author (up) Eagly, A.H.; Karau, S.J.; Makhijani, M.G. file  url
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  Title Gender and the effectiveness of leaders: a meta-analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 1995 Publication Psychological Bulletin Abbreviated Journal Psychol Bull  
  Volume 117 Issue 1 Pages 125-145  
  Keywords Female; *Gender Identity; Humans; *Leadership; Male; Organizational Culture; *Social Behavior; Social Environment  
  Abstract This article presents a synthesis of research on the relative effectiveness of women and men who occupy leadership and managerial roles. Aggregated over the organizational and laboratory experimental studies in the sample, male and female leaders were equally effective. However, consistent with the assumption that the congruence of leadership roles with leaders' gender enhances effectiveness, men were more effective than women in roles that were defined in more masculine terms, and women were more effective than men in roles that were defined in less masculine terms. Also, men were more effective than women to the extent that leader and subordinate roles were male-dominated numerically. These and other findings are discussed from the perspective of social-role theory of sex differences in social behavior as well as from alternative perspectives.  
  Call Number Serial 272  
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