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Author (up) Davis, J. file  url
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  Title The effect of qualifying language on perceptions of drug appeal, drug experience, and estimates of side-effect incidence in DTC advertising Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Journal of Health Communication Abbreviated Journal J Health Commun  
  Volume 12 Issue 7 Pages 607-622  
  Keywords Adult; Advertising as Topic/*standards; Analysis of Variance; Drug Industry/*standards; Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions; Female; Humans; Likelihood Functions; Male; Patient Satisfaction/*statistics & numerical data; *Persuasive Communication; *Pharmaceutical Preparations; Risk Assessment/*standards; Surveys and Questionnaires; *Terminology as Topic; United States; United States Food and Drug Administration  
  Abstract This study examined how the use of qualifying language in direct-to-consumer (DTC) pharmaceutical advertising affects consumers' perceptions of drug appeal, anticipated pleasantness of drug usage, and the expected incidence of side-effect occurrence. A sample of 669 individuals participated in a 2 x 8 complete factorial design. The design manipulated the number of side effects associated with drug use and the type of qualifying language used to describe the side effects. The eight experimental qualifying language cells represented one control condition (no qualifying language), three cells where each of three types of qualifying language were presented individually, and four cells where qualifying language was combined. The results indicate that qualifying language has a profound effect on drug perceptions, especially when used in combination. Drug appeal and the anticipated drug-using experience almost always were more positive in the presence of qualifying language. Qualifying language appears to exert its influence by causing individuals to reduce their estimate of the likelihood of experiencing individual side effects. Policy implications of the research, particularly for evaluation of “fair balance” and the reporting of side effects, are presented.  
  Call Number Serial 1390  
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Author (up) Ege, M.J.; Mayer, M.; Normand, A.-C.; Genuneit, J.; Cookson, W.O.C.M.; Braun-Fahrlander, C.; Heederik, D.; Piarroux, R.; von Mutius, E. file  url
openurl 
  Title Exposure to environmental microorganisms and childhood asthma Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication The New England Journal of Medicine Abbreviated Journal N Engl J Med  
  Volume 364 Issue 8 Pages 701-709  
  Keywords Adolescent; *Agriculture; Asthma/*epidemiology/immunology; Bacteria/*isolation & purification; Biodiversity; Child; Cross-Sectional Studies; Dust/analysis; Environmental Exposure/*analysis; Female; Fungi/*isolation & purification; Humans; Hypersensitivity/*epidemiology/immunology; Immunoglobulin E/blood; Logistic Models; Male; Microbiome; Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational; Prevalence; Risk Factors; Surveys and Questionnaires  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Children who grow up in environments that afford them a wide range of microbial exposures, such as traditional farms, are protected from childhood asthma and atopy. In previous studies, markers of microbial exposure have been inversely related to these conditions. METHODS: In two cross-sectional studies, we compared children living on farms with those in a reference group with respect to the prevalence of asthma and atopy and to the diversity of microbial exposure. In one study--PARSIFAL (Prevention of Allergy-Risk Factors for Sensitization in Children Related to Farming and Anthroposophic Lifestyle)--samples of mattress dust were screened for bacterial DNA with the use of single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analyses to detect environmental bacteria that cannot be measured by means of culture techniques. In the other study--GABRIELA (Multidisciplinary Study to Identify the Genetic and Environmental Causes of Asthma in the European Community [GABRIEL] Advanced Study)--samples of settled dust from children's rooms were evaluated for bacterial and fungal taxa with the use of culture techniques. RESULTS: In both studies, children who lived on farms had lower prevalences of asthma and atopy and were exposed to a greater variety of environmental microorganisms than the children in the reference group. In turn, diversity of microbial exposure was inversely related to the risk of asthma (odds ratio for PARSIFAL, 0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.44 to 0.89; odds ratio for GABRIELA, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.75 to 0.99). In addition, the presence of certain more circumscribed exposures was also inversely related to the risk of asthma; this included exposure to species in the fungal taxon eurotium (adjusted odds ratio, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.18 to 0.76) and to a variety of bacterial species, including Listeria monocytogenes, bacillus species, corynebacterium species, and others (adjusted odds ratio, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.86). CONCLUSIONS: Children living on farms were exposed to a wider range of microbes than were children in the reference group, and this exposure explains a substantial fraction of the inverse relation between asthma and growing up on a farm. (Funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and the European Commission.).  
  Call Number Serial 1983  
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Author (up) Foote, H.W.; Hamer, J.D.; Roland, M.M.; Landy, S.R.; Smitherman, T.A. file  url
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  Title Psychological flexibility in migraine: A study of pain acceptance and values-based action Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Cephalalgia : an International Journal of Headache Abbreviated Journal Cephalalgia  
  Volume 36 Issue 4 Pages 317-324  
  Keywords *Adaptation, Psychological; Adult; Chronic Pain/psychology; Cross-Sectional Studies; Female; Humans; Male; Migraine Disorders/*psychology; Surveys and Questionnaires; Migraine; acceptance; acceptance and commitment therapy; disability; headache; psychological flexibility  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Studies of musculoskeletal pain patients confirm that acceptance of pain and values-based action are strong predictors of pain-related disability and that interventions fostering “psychological flexibility” confer positive outcomes. However, data on these processes in migraine remain limited. This cross-sectional study examined relations between components of psychological flexibility and headache among treatment-seeking migraineurs. METHODS: A total of 103 adults (M age = 41.5 (11.9) years; 88.2% female) with ICHD-confirmed migraine (71.8% episodic, 28.2% chronic) across three clinics completed measures of psychological flexibility and headache-related disability. Hierarchical regressions quantified relations between acceptance/values-based action and headache variables after first controlling for pain severity and gender. RESULTS: Acceptance of pain and values-based action accounted for 10% of unique variance in headache severity (DeltaR(2) p = 0.006) and up to 20% in headache-related disability (DeltaR(2) ps = 0.02 and < 0.001) but were weakly related to headache frequency. Psychological flexibility was more strongly associated with MIDAS-measured disability than was headache severity or headache frequency. Significant effects were typically of medium-to-large size and driven primarily by values-based action. CONCLUSIONS: Paralleling results from the broader chronic pain literature, pain acceptance and values-based action play significant roles in headache pain and disability. Further study of interventions targeting these processes may enhance existing treatments.  
  Call Number Serial 2062  
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Author (up) Hetherington, M.M.; Anderson, A.S.; Norton, G.N.M.; Newson, L. file  url
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  Title Situational effects on meal intake: A comparison of eating alone and eating with others Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Physiology & Behavior Abbreviated Journal Physiol Behav  
  Volume 88 Issue 4-5 Pages 498-505  
  Keywords Adult; Affect/physiology; Appetite; Dietary Fats; Eating/physiology/*psychology; Energy Intake/physiology; Female; Food; Humans; Hunger/physiology; Male; Memory/physiology; *Social Environment; Social Facilitation; Surveys and Questionnaires; Television  
  Abstract Eating in competition with other tasks has been shown to increase food intake, particularly when tasks are cognitively demanding. To test the hypothesis that social facilitation of eating occurs, in part, as a function of distraction which impairs the ability to self-monitor, eating with others was compared with eating alone or in front of the television. Using a repeated measure within-subjects design, thirty-seven participants (21 males) visited the laboratory 4 times to eat a buffet-style lunch ad libitum. All eating episodes were filmed. Energy intake (EI) was measured when participants ate alone (A), ate alone while watching TV (B), ate with two same sex strangers (C), and ate with two same sex friends (D) in a counterbalanced order. EI was significantly enhanced by presence of familiar others (D: 4565+/-272 kJ, p < 0.001) and watching TV (B: 4350+/-252 kJ, p < 0.05) compared to baseline (A: 3861+/-200 kJ). Length of eating episode correlated significantly (p < 0.05) with EI, however, amount of time spent eating and looking at food differed by condition with a greater percentage of time focussed on food during baseline (p < 0.001). Eating with friends increased EI by 18% and eating in front of the TV increased EI by 14% relative to baseline. Engaging in conversation or watching TV draws attention away from the eaten food and can stimulate food intake. However, since eating with strangers also drew attention away from food but did not result in increased intake, social facilitation effects are not simply due to distraction. Thus food intake can be enhanced when attention to food and self-monitoring are impaired during distraction, however, this effect is moderated when eating with strangers.  
  Call Number Serial 1645  
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Author (up) Horstmann, A.; Dietrich, A.; Mathar, D.; Possel, M.; Villringer, A.; Neumann, J. file  url
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  Title Slave to habit? Obesity is associated with decreased behavioural sensitivity to reward devaluation Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite  
  Volume 87 Issue Pages 175-183  
  Keywords Adaptation, Physiological; Adult; Body Mass Index; Body Weight; Energy Intake; Feeding Behavior/*psychology; Health Behavior; Humans; Hunger; Hyperphagia/psychology; Linear Models; Male; Models, Biological; Motivation; Obesity/*psychology; *Reward; Satiation; Surveys and Questionnaires; Young Adult; Control of food intake; Devaluation; Goal-directed; Habitual; Obesity; Reward sensitivity  
  Abstract The motivational value of food is lower during satiety compared to fasting. Dynamic changes in motivational value promote food seeking or meal cessation. In obesity this mechanism might be compromised since obese subjects ingest energy beyond homeostatic needs. Thus, lower adaptation of eating behaviour with respect to changes in motivational value might cause food overconsumption in obesity. To test this hypothesis, we implemented a selective satiation procedure to investigate the relationship between obesity and the size of the behavioural devaluation effect in humans. Lean to obese men (mean age 25.9, range 19-30 years; mean BMI 29.1, range 19.2-45.1 kg/m(2)) were trained on a free operant paradigm and learned to associate cues with the possibility to win different food rewards by pressing a button. After the initial training phase, one of the rewards was devalued by consumption. Response rates for and wanting of the different rewards were measured pre and post devaluation. Behavioural sensitivity to reward devaluation, measured as the magnitude of difference between pre and post responses, was regressed against BMI. Results indicate that (1) higher BMI compared to lower BMI in men led to an attenuated behavioural adjustment to reward devaluation, and (2) the decrease in motivational value was associated with the decrease in response rate between pre and post. Change in explicitly reported motivational value, however, was not affected by BMI. Thus, we conclude that high BMI in men is associated with lower behavioural adaptation with respect to changes in motivational value of food, possibly resulting in automatic overeating patterns that are hard to control in daily life.  
  Call Number Serial 1264  
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Author (up) Jansen, E.; Mulkens, S.; Emond, Y.; Jansen, A. file  url
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  Title From the Garden of Eden to the land of plenty. Restriction of fruit and sweets intake leads to increased fruit and sweets consumption in children Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite  
  Volume 51 Issue 3 Pages 570-575  
  Keywords Analysis of Variance; Body Mass Index; Child; Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena/physiology; Child, Preschool; Dietary Sucrose/*administration & dosage; Eating/*psychology; Energy Intake/physiology; Female; *Fruit; Humans; *Inhibition (Psychology); Male; Obesity/epidemiology/etiology/psychology; Parent-Child Relations; Parents/*psychology; Psychology, Child; Surveys and Questionnaires  
  Abstract Overweight is increasing rapidly in children, compelling researchers to seek for determinants of adverse food intake. In a previous experiment it was found that manipulating the restriction of attractive snacks increased the desirability and intake of these snacks. In the present study, we tested whether this paradoxical restricting effect is also seen in relatively less attractive but healthy food, i.e. fruit. Will fruit become more desirable through restriction, and will children eat more forbidden fruit than non-forbidden fruit? Two groups of young children were forbidden to eat fruits and sweets, respectively, whereas a control group was invited to eat everything. Desire for sweets remained high in the sweets-prohibition condition, whereas it decreased in the fruit-prohibition and no-prohibition conditions. No group differences were found regarding the desire for fruit. With respect to intake, children in both the fruit- and the sweets-prohibition condition consumed more of the formerly forbidden food during a taste session as compared to the no-prohibition condition. In addition, total food intake was higher in the two prohibition conditions than in the no-prohibition condition. These data indicate that the adverse effects of restriction apply to both attractive unhealthy and relatively less attractive but healthy food.  
  Call Number Serial 1691  
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Author (up) Karidi, M.V.; Vassilopoulou, D.; Savvidou, E.; Vitoratou, S.; Maillis, A.; Rabavilas, A.; Stefanis, C.N. file  url
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  Title Bipolar disorder and self-stigma: A comparison with schizophrenia Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Journal of Affective Disorders Abbreviated Journal J Affect Disord  
  Volume 184 Issue Pages 209-215  
  Keywords Adult; Bipolar Disorder/*psychology; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; Empathy; Employment; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; *Schizophrenic Psychology; Self Concept; Social Behavior; *Social Stigma; Surveys and Questionnaires; Young Adult; Bipolar disorder; Simi; Schizophrenia; Self-stigma  
  Abstract AIM: Even though numerous studies have focused on the effects of self-stigma on patients with schizophrenia, little is known about self-stigma of patients with bipolar disorder (BD). In this study, a self-administered scale of self-stigmatising attitudes of patients with BD and schizophrenia was used to explore these attitudes, examine the potential differences between the two groups and study the factors that influence stigma within groups. METHODS: Self-stigma of 120 patients with schizophrenia and BD was assessed with the Self-stigma Questionnaire (SSQ) and the Stigma Inventory for Mental Illness (SIMI). Presence of clinical symptoms, overall functioning and level of self-esteem were also evaluated. RESULTS: Self-stigma is present in both groups but differs in its intensity. Patients with BD experience self-stigma in a lesser degree without affecting their social life or overall functioning. Patients with schizophrenia adopt more intense self-stigmatising attitudes leading to social exclusion and lower level of overall functioning. LIMITATIONS: The results are limited by the small sample size, whereas the inclusion of other questionnaires would broaden our insight to self-stigma. CONCLUSIONS: Self-stigma has a direct effect on overall functioning of patients with BD and schizophrenia tampering the clinical outcome of therapeutic interventions. Therefore, it should be incorporated in every treatment plan and be addressed as a clinical symptom of the mental illness.  
  Call Number Serial 1692  
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Author (up) Khatib, Y.; Bhui, K.; Stansfeld, S.A. file  url
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  Title Does social support protect against depression & psychological distress? Findings from the RELACHS study of East London adolescents Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Journal of Adolescence Abbreviated Journal J Adolesc  
  Volume 36 Issue 2 Pages 393-402  
  Keywords Adolescent; Child; Confidence Intervals; Depression/ethnology/*prevention & control; Female; Humans; London; Male; Odds Ratio; Prospective Studies; *Social Support; Stress, Psychological/ethnology/*prevention & control; Surveys and Questionnaires  
  Abstract Few prospective studies have examined the relationship between social support and psychological distress and depressive symptoms in adolescents. The aims of this study were to test whether social support is protective against psychological distress and depressive symptoms in an ethnically diverse population of adolescents and whether differences in support are reflected by ethnic differences in psychological distress and depressive symptoms. Based on a longitudinal survey of 821 adolescents, this study found low levels of social support from family members was prospectively associated with depressive symptoms (OR = 2.25, 95% CI 1.43-3.54). Compared with White UK pupils, Black pupils were less likely to display psychological distress (OR = 0.21, 95% CI 0.09-0.51). However, social support did not explain the ethnic variations in psychological distress. Family environment may be a more consistent source of support compared with support from peers. The lower risk of psychological distress among Black pupils compared to White pupils requires further investigation.  
  Call Number Serial 1717  
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Author (up) Kim, E.J.; Namkoong, K.; Ku, T.; Kim, S.J. file  url
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  Title The relationship between online game addiction and aggression, self-control and narcissistic personality traits Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication European Psychiatry : the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists Abbreviated Journal Eur Psychiatry  
  Volume 23 Issue 3 Pages 212-218  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Aggression/*psychology; Behavior, Addictive/*diagnosis/epidemiology/psychology; Cross-Sectional Studies; Female; Health Surveys; Humans; *Internal-External Control; *Internet; Korea; Male; Personality Disorders/*diagnosis/epidemiology/psychology; Surveys and Questionnaires; *Video Games  
  Abstract OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore the relationship between online game addiction and aggression, self-control, and narcissistic personality traits, which are known as the psychological characteristics linked to “at-risk” populations for online game addiction. METHOD: A total of 1471 online game users (males 82.7%, females 17.3%, mean age 21.30+/-4.96) participated in this study and were asked to complete several self-report measures using an online response method. Questionnaires included demographic information and game use-related characteristics of the samples, the online game addiction scale (modified from Young's Internet addiction scale), the Buss-Perry aggression questionnaire, a self-control scale, and the narcissistic personality disorder scale. RESULTS: Our results indicated that aggression and narcissistic personality traits are positively correlated with online game addiction, whereas self-control is negatively correlated with online game addiction (p<0.001). In addition, a multiple regression analysis revealed that the extent of online game addiction could be predicted based on the person's narcissistic personality traits, aggression, self-control, interpersonal relationship, and occupation. However, only 20% of the variance in behavioral consequences was explained with the model. CONCLUSION: An interesting profile has emerged from the results of this study, suggesting that certain psychological characteristics such as aggression, self-control, and narcissistic personality traits may predispose some individuals to become addicted to online games. This result will deepen our understanding of the “at-risk” population for online game addiction and provide basic information that can contribute to developing a prevention program for people who are addicted to online games.  
  Call Number Serial 1491  
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Author (up) Liem, D.G.; Mars, M.; De Graaf, C. file  url
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  Title Sweet preferences and sugar consumption of 4- and 5-year-old children: role of parents Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite  
  Volume 43 Issue 3 Pages 235-245  
  Keywords Adult; Child, Preschool; Diet Surveys; Dietary Sucrose/*administration & dosage; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Feeding Behavior/physiology/psychology; Female; Food Preferences/physiology/*psychology; Humans; Male; Parents/*psychology; Surveys and Questionnaires; Taste/physiology  
  Abstract We investigated the relationships in children between rules that restrict consumption of mono- and disaccharides (MDS), consumption of MDS and preferences for sucrose-containing orangeade. The background ideas of restriction rules we also investigated. To this end, 44 children (5.1+/-0.5 years) performed a rank-order and paired-comparison test of preference for five orangeades, which differed in sucrose concentration (0.14, 0.20, 0.29, 0.42, 0.61 M sucrose). Parents filled out a questionnaire concerning restriction rules and their children's consumption of MDS-containing foods. Stronger restriction rules were related to a lower consumption of beverages that contained MDS and to a lower consumption of MDS-containing foods during breakfast and lunch. The most freedom to choose foods that contain MDS was given during the afternoon. Fifty-five percent of the children who were highly restricted showed a preference for the highest concentration of sucrose in orangeade. None of these children preferred the orangeade with the lowest concentration of sucrose. While 19% of the children who were little restricted preferred the beverage with the lowest concentration of sucrose, 33% preferred the beverage with the highest concentration. These parents generally believed that sugar has a bad effect on health and had similar background ideas concerning restriction rules.  
  Call Number Serial 1942  
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