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Author (up) Brooks, J.P.; Adeli, A.; McLaughlin, M.R. file  url
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  Title Microbial ecology, bacterial pathogens, and antibiotic resistant genes in swine manure wastewater as influenced by three swine management systems Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Water Research Abbreviated Journal Water Res  
  Volume 57 Issue Pages 96-103  
  Keywords Animal Husbandry/*methods; Animals; Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology; Bacteria/drug effects/*genetics/*isolation & purification; Bacterial Proteins/genetics/metabolism; Drug Resistance, Bacterial/*genetics; Manure/*microbiology; Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects/genetics/isolation & purification; *Microbiota; RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics/metabolism; Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction; Southeastern United States; Sus scrofa; Waste Water/*microbiology; Antibiotic resistance; Campylobacter; Confined animal feeding operation (CAFO); Lagoon wastewater; Salmonella; Swine; Microbiome  
  Abstract The environmental influence of farm management in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) can yield vast changes to the microbial biota and ecological structure of both the pig and waste manure lagoon wastewater. While some of these changes may not be negative, it is possible that CAFOs can enrich antibiotic resistant bacteria or pathogens based on farm type, thereby influencing the impact imparted by the land application of its respective wastewater. The purpose of this study was to measure the microbial constituents of swine-sow, -nursery, and -finisher farm manure lagoon wastewater and determine the changes induced by farm management. A total of 37 farms were visited in the Mid-South USA and analyzed for the genes 16S rRNA, spaQ (Salmonella spp.), Camp-16S (Campylobacter spp.), tetA, tetB, ermF, ermA, mecA, and intI using quantitative PCR. Additionally, 16S rRNA sequence libraries were created. Overall, it appeared that finisher farms were significantly different from nursery and sow farms in nearly all genes measured and in 16S rRNA clone libraries. Nearly all antibiotic resistance genes were detected in all farms. Interestingly, the mecA resistance gene (e.g. methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus) was below detection limits on most farms, and decreased as the pigs aged. Finisher farms generally had fewer antibiotic resistance genes, which corroborated previous phenotypic data; additionally, finisher farms produced a less diverse 16S rRNA sequence library. Comparisons of Camp-16S and spaQ GU (genomic unit) values to previous culture data demonstrated ratios from 10 to 10,000:1 depending on farm type, indicating viable but not cultivatable bacteria were dominant. The current study indicated that swine farm management schemes positively and negatively affect microbial and antibiotic resistant populations in CAFO wastewater which has future “downstream” implications from both an environmental and public health perspective.  
  Call Number Serial 1943  
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Author (up) Rahube, T.O.; Yost, C.K. file  url
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  Title Characterization of a mobile and multiple resistance plasmid isolated from swine manure and its detection in soil after manure application Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Journal of Applied Microbiology Abbreviated Journal J Appl Microbiol  
  Volume 112 Issue 6 Pages 1123-1133  
  Keywords Animals; Bacteria/genetics/metabolism; Culture Media/chemistry; *Drug Resistance, Multiple; Erythromycin/metabolism; Manure/*microbiology; Plasmids/analysis/*genetics; *Soil Microbiology; *Sus scrofa; Tetracycline Resistance  
  Abstract AIMS: To isolate and characterize multiple antibiotic resistance plasmids found in swine manure and test for plasmid-associated genetic markers in soil following manure application to an agricultural field. METHODS AND RESULTS: Plasmids were isolated from an erythromycin enrichment culture that used liquid swine manure as an inoculant. Plasmids were transformed into Escherichia coli DH10beta for subsequent characterization. We isolated and DNA sequenced a 22 102-bp plasmid (pMC2) that confers macrolide, and tetracycline resistances, and carries genes predicted to code for mercury and chromium resistance. Conjugation experiments using an pRP4 derivative as a helper plasmid confirm that pMC2 has a functional mobilization unit. PCR was used to detect genetic elements found on pMC2 in DNA extracted from manure amended soil. CONCLUSIONS: The pMC2 plasmid has a tetracycline-resistant core and has acquired additional resistance genes by insertion of an accessory region (12 762 bp) containing macrolide, mercury and chromium resistance genes, which was inserted between the truncated DDE motifs within the Tn903/IS102 mobile element. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Liquid swine manure used for manure spreading contains multiple antibiotic resistance plasmids that can be detected in soil following manure application.  
  Call Number Serial 1958  
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Author (up) Stine, O.C.; Johnson, J.A.; Keefer-Norris, A.; Perry, K.L.; Tigno, J.; Qaiyumi, S.; Stine, M.S.; Morris, J.G.J. file  url
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  Title Widespread distribution of tetracycline resistance genes in a confined animal feeding facility Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents Abbreviated Journal Int J Antimicrob Agents  
  Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages 348-352  
  Keywords Alleles; Animal Feed/microbiology; Animal Husbandry; Animals; Bacteria/drug effects/genetics/isolation & purification; Base Sequence; DNA, Bacterial/genetics; Enterococcus/drug effects/genetics/isolation & purification; Environmental Microbiology; Escherichia coli/drug effects/genetics/isolation & purification; Feces/microbiology; Food Microbiology; *Genes, Bacterial; Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid; Sus scrofa/*microbiology; Tetracycline Resistance/*genetics  
  Abstract We sought to determine the distribution of resistance and the tetracycline resistance genes among bacteria isolated from a swine confined animal feeding facility where tetracycline-containing feed had been in use for over 20 years. Samples collected from feed, hogs, hog houses, waste lagoon, soil, surface water and well water were screened for the presence of (a) resistant Escherichia coli and enterococci and (b) tetracycline-resistant strains of all species. Genomic DNA was extracted from the latter strain collection and fragments from 16S rDNA and ten tetracycline resistance genes (tetA, tetB, tetC, tetE, tetH, tetL, tetM, tetS, tetT and rumB) were polymerase chain reaction-amplified and a partial nucleotide sequence was obtained. In this environment, 77% of E. coli and 68% of enterococci isolated were tetracycline resistant. Tetracycline resistance was found in 26 different bacterial genera and in 60 species. Single resistance gene alleles (as defined by nucleotide sequence) were present in multiple species. There was evidence of gene recombination and multiple different tetracycline resistance genes were present in single bacterial isolates. These data provide further evidence for the widespread distribution of resistance genes in microbial populations in settings in which there is ongoing subtherapeutic antimicrobial use.  
  Call Number Serial 1957  
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