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Author (up) Aarestrup, F.M.; Bager, F.; Jensen, N.E.; Madsen, M.; Meyling, A.; Wegener, H.C. file  url
  Title Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria isolated from food animals to antimicrobial growth promoters and related therapeutic agents in Denmark Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication APMIS : Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica Abbreviated Journal Apmis  
  Volume 106 Issue 6 Pages 606-622  
  Keywords Animals; Anti-Bacterial Agents/*pharmacology; Bacteria/*drug effects/*isolation & purification; Bacterial Infections/drug therapy/veterinary; Cattle; Cattle Diseases/drug therapy/microbiology; Cecum/microbiology; Chickens/growth & development; Drug Resistance, Microbial; Feces/microbiology; Meat/*microbiology; Microbial Sensitivity Tests/veterinary; Poultry Diseases/drug therapy/microbiology; Swine/growth & development; Swine Diseases/drug therapy/microbiology  
  Abstract This study was conducted to describe the occurrence of acquired resistance to antimicrobials used for growth promotion among bacteria isolated from swine, cattle and poultry in Denmark. Resistance to structurally related therapeutic agents was also examined. Three categories of bacteria were tested: 1) indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium), 2) zoonotic bacteria (Campylobacter, Salmonella, Yersinia enterocolitica), and 3) animal pathogens (E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), Staphylococcus hyicus, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae). All antimicrobials used as growth promoters in Denmark and some structurally related therapeutic agents (in brackets) were included: Avilamycin, avoparcin (vancomycin), bacitracin, carbadox, flavomycin, monensin, olaquindox, salinomycin, spiramycin (erythromycin, lincomycin), tylosin (erythromycin, lincomycin), and virginiamycin (pristinamycin). Bacterial species intrinsically resistant to an antimicrobial were not tested towards that antimicrobial. Breakpoints for growth promoters were established by population distribution of the bacteria tested. A total of 2,372 bacterial isolates collected during October 1995 to September 1996 were included in the study. Acquired resistance to all currently used growth promoting antimicrobials was found. A frequent occurrence of resistance were observed to avilamycin, avoparcin, bacitracin, flavomycin, spiramycin, tylosin and virginiamycin, whereas resistance to carbadox, monensin, olaquindox and salinomycin was less frequent. The occurrence of resistance varied by animal origin and bacterial species. The highest levels of resistance was observed among enterococci, whereas less resistance was observed among zoonotic bacteria and bacteria pathogenic to animals. The association between the occurrence of resistance and the consumption of the antimicrobial is discussed. The results show the present level of resistance to growth promoters in bacteria from food animals in Denmark. They will form the baseline for comparison with future prospective studies, thereby enabling the determination of trends over time.  
  Call Number Serial 1676  
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Author (up) Beeckmans, S.; Kanarek, L. file  url
  Title Subunit interactions in pig heart fumarase--II. Study of tetramer-dimer equilibrium in function of enzyme concentration and temperature Type Journal Article
  Year 1982 Publication The International Journal of Biochemistry Abbreviated Journal Int J Biochem  
  Volume 14 Issue 11 Pages 971-975  
  Keywords Animals; Biopolymers; Chemical Phenomena; Chemistry; *Fumarate Hydratase/isolation & purification; Kinetics; Myocardium/*enzymology; Protein Denaturation; Swine; Temperature  
  Abstract The dissociation of pig fumarase tetramers into two dimers was studied as a function of temperature in the absence of denaturating agents. 1. At high temperatures a kinetical and structural study of dissociation and reassociation was performed. 2. At low temperatures fumarase dissociation was induced by limiting the enzyme concentration.  
  Call Number Serial 248  
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Author (up) Brooks, J.P.; Adeli, A.; McLaughlin, M.R. file  url
  Title Microbial ecology, bacterial pathogens, and antibiotic resistant genes in swine manure wastewater as influenced by three swine management systems Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Water Research Abbreviated Journal Water Res  
  Volume 57 Issue Pages 96-103  
  Keywords Animal Husbandry/*methods; Animals; Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology; Bacteria/drug effects/*genetics/*isolation & purification; Bacterial Proteins/genetics/metabolism; Drug Resistance, Bacterial/*genetics; Manure/*microbiology; Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects/genetics/isolation & purification; *Microbiota; RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics/metabolism; Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction; Southeastern United States; Sus scrofa; Waste Water/*microbiology; Antibiotic resistance; Campylobacter; Confined animal feeding operation (CAFO); Lagoon wastewater; Salmonella; Swine; Microbiome  
  Abstract The environmental influence of farm management in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) can yield vast changes to the microbial biota and ecological structure of both the pig and waste manure lagoon wastewater. While some of these changes may not be negative, it is possible that CAFOs can enrich antibiotic resistant bacteria or pathogens based on farm type, thereby influencing the impact imparted by the land application of its respective wastewater. The purpose of this study was to measure the microbial constituents of swine-sow, -nursery, and -finisher farm manure lagoon wastewater and determine the changes induced by farm management. A total of 37 farms were visited in the Mid-South USA and analyzed for the genes 16S rRNA, spaQ (Salmonella spp.), Camp-16S (Campylobacter spp.), tetA, tetB, ermF, ermA, mecA, and intI using quantitative PCR. Additionally, 16S rRNA sequence libraries were created. Overall, it appeared that finisher farms were significantly different from nursery and sow farms in nearly all genes measured and in 16S rRNA clone libraries. Nearly all antibiotic resistance genes were detected in all farms. Interestingly, the mecA resistance gene (e.g. methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus) was below detection limits on most farms, and decreased as the pigs aged. Finisher farms generally had fewer antibiotic resistance genes, which corroborated previous phenotypic data; additionally, finisher farms produced a less diverse 16S rRNA sequence library. Comparisons of Camp-16S and spaQ GU (genomic unit) values to previous culture data demonstrated ratios from 10 to 10,000:1 depending on farm type, indicating viable but not cultivatable bacteria were dominant. The current study indicated that swine farm management schemes positively and negatively affect microbial and antibiotic resistant populations in CAFO wastewater which has future “downstream” implications from both an environmental and public health perspective.  
  Call Number Serial 1943  
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Author (up) Edwards, R.G. file  url
  Title Maturation in vitro of mouse, sheep, cow, pig, rhesus monkey and human ovarian oocytes Type Journal Article
  Year 1965 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume 208 Issue 5008 Pages 349-351  
  Keywords Animals; Cattle; *Cell Division; Culture Media; Female; Haplorhini; Humans; In Vitro Techniques; Mice; *Ovum; Sheep; Swine  
  Abstract “The investigation of early development in many mammalian species is restricted by the difficulty of obtaining sufficient numbers of oocytes and embryos at particular stages of development.”  
  Call Number Serial 1159  
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Author (up) Kaur, J.; Ledward, D.A.; Park, R.W.; Robson, R.L. file  url
  Title Factors affecting the heat resistance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication Letters in Applied Microbiology Abbreviated Journal Lett Appl Microbiol  
  Volume 26 Issue 4 Pages 325-330  
  Keywords Animals; Escherichia coli O157/drug effects/growth & development/*physiology; *Heat-Shock Response/drug effects; Humans; Polyphosphates/pharmacology; Poultry/microbiology; Swine/microbiology; Time Factors; Water  
  Abstract Escherichia coli O157:H7 has been reported as being not particularly heat resistant. However, several factors which might increase its heat resistance have been investigated in this study using five strains. Increase in growth temperature to 40 degrees C, as found in the cow gut, heat-shock at sub-lethal temperatures of 42, 45, 48 and 50 degrees C, and variable heating rate (1 degree C min-1 to 23 degrees C min-1) had no dramatic effect on heat resistance. Growth phase had a marked impact on heat resistance; late stationary phase cells were more heat-resistant than were log phase cells. The difference in heat resistance between the two phases of growth became more pronounced when cells were resuspended in fresh nutrient broth; heat resistance of late stationary phase cells increased dramatically whereas no such effect was observed with log phase cells. The addition of polyphosphates to the heating medium did not increase heat resistance. A reduction in water activity of the heating medium from 0.995 to levels between 0.980 and 0.960 also resulted in a marked increase in heat resistance. This effect was more pronounced under conditions of extremely low water activity created by resuspending late stationary phase cells in sunflower oil. Survivors were detected even after a heat treatment at 60 degrees C for 1 h or 70 degrees C for 5 min. It can be confirmed that this serotype has no unusual heat resistance and that the heating environment markedly affects resistance.  
  Call Number Serial 313  
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Author (up) Luby, E.M.; Moorman, T.B.; Soupir, M.L. file  url
  Title Fate and transport of tylosin-resistant bacteria and macrolide resistance genes in artificially drained agricultural fields receiving swine manure Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication The Science of the Total Environment Abbreviated Journal Sci Total Environ  
  Volume 550 Issue Pages 1126-1133  
  Keywords *Agriculture; Animals; Drug Resistance, Bacterial/*genetics; *Environmental Monitoring; Macrolides/*analysis; Manure; *Soil Microbiology; Swine; Tylosin/analysis; Antibiotic resistance; Enterococcus; Manure; Soil; Swine; Tile drainage; erm genes  
  Abstract Application of manure from swine treated with antibiotics introduces antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes to soil with the potential for further movement in drainage water, which may contribute to the increase in antibiotic resistance in non-agricultural settings. We compared losses of antibiotic-resistant Enterococcus and macrolide-resistance (erm and msrA) genes in water draining from plots with or without swine manure application under chisel plow and no till conditions. Concentrations of ermB, ermC and ermF were all >10(9)copies g(-1) in manure from tylosin-treated swine, and application of this manure resulted in short-term increases in the abundance of these genes in soil. Abundances of ermB, ermC and ermF in manured soil returned to levels identified in non-manured control plots by the spring following manure application. Tillage practices yielded no significant differences (p>0.10) in enterococci or erm gene concentrations in drainage water and were therefore combined for further analysis. While enterococci and tylosin-resistant enterococci concentrations in drainage water showed no effects of manure application, ermB and ermF concentrations in drainage water from manured plots were significantly higher (p<0.01) than concentrations coming from non-manured plots. ErmB and ermF were detected in 78% and 44%, respectively, of water samples draining from plots receiving manure. Although ermC had the highest concentrations of the three genes in drainage water, there was no effect of manure application on ermC abundance. MsrA was not detected in manure, soil or water. This study is the first to report significant increases in abundance of resistance genes in waters draining from agricultural land due to manure application.  
  Call Number Serial 1804  
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Author (up) Peng, S.; Wang, Y.; Zhou, B.; Lin, X. file  url
  Title Long-term application of fresh and composted manure increase tetracycline resistance in the arable soil of eastern China Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication The Science of the Total Environment Abbreviated Journal Sci Total Environ  
  Volume 506-507 Issue Pages 279-286  
  Keywords Agriculture/*methods; China; Fertilizers/*analysis; Manure/*analysis/microbiology; Soil/chemistry; *Soil Microbiology; Tetracycline Resistance/*genetics; Antibiotic resistance genes; Composting; Pollutant; Real-time PCR; Swine manure  
  Abstract The aim of this study was to compare the occurrence, abundance, and diversity of tetracycline resistance genes (tet) in agricultural soils after 6 years' application of fresh or composted swine manure. Soil samples were collected from fresh or composted manure-treated farmland at three depths (0-5 cm, 5-10 cm, and 10-20 cm). Nine classes of tet genes [tetW, tetB(P), tetO, tetS, tetC, tetG, tetZ, tetL, and tetX] were detected; tetG, tetZ, tetL, and tetB(P) were predominant in the manure-treated soil. The abundances of tetB(P), tetW, tetC, and tetO were reduced, while tetG and tetL were increased by fertilizing with composted versus fresh manure; thus, the total abundance of tet genes was not significantly reduced by compost manuring. tetG was the most abundant gene in manure-treated soil; the predominant tetG genotypes shared high homology with pathogenic bacteria. The tetG isolates were more diverse in soils treated with fresh versus composted manure, although the residual tet genes in composted manure remain a pollutant and produce a different influence on the tet gene resistome in field soil.  
  Call Number Serial 1201  
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Author (up) Tacke, M.; Cuffe, L.P.; Gallagher, W.M.; Lou, Y.; Mendoza, O.; Muller-Bunz, H.; Rehmann, F.-J.K.; Sweeney, N. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Methoxy-phenyl substituted ansa-titanocenes as potential anti-cancer drugs derived from fulvenes and titanium dichloride Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry Abbreviated Journal J Inorg Biochem  
  Volume 98 Issue 12 Pages 1987-1994  
  Keywords Animals; Antineoplastic Agents/chemical synthesis/chemistry/*pharmacology/toxicity; Carcinoma, Renal Cell/*drug therapy; Cell Line, Tumor; Cyclopentanes/chemical synthesis/chemistry/*pharmacology/toxicity; Drug Evaluation, Preclinical; Inhibitory Concentration 50; Kidney Neoplasms/*drug therapy; Molecular Conformation; Swine; Titanium/*pharmacology/toxicity  
  Abstract Starting from 6-(4'-methoxyphenyl)fulvene (1a), 6-(2',4',6'-trimethoxyphenyl)fulvene (1b), or 6-(3',5'-dimethoxyphenyl)fulvene (1c), [1,2-di(cyclopentadienyl)-1,2-di(4'-methoxyphenyl)-ethanediyl] titanium dichloride (2a), [1,2-di(cyclopentadienyl)-1,2-bis(2',4',6'-trimethoxyphenyl)-ethanediyl] titanium dichloride (2b), and [1,2-di(cyclopentadienyl)-1,2-bis(3',5'-dimethoxyphenyl)-ethanediyl] titanium dichloride (2c) were synthesised. When titanocenes 2a-c were tested against pig kidney carcinoma cells (LLC-PK) inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 2.8 x 10(-4), 3.6 x 10(-4) and 2.1 x 10(-4) M, respectively, were observed.  
  Call Number Serial 393  
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Author (up) Zhou, X.; Qiao, M.; Wang, F.-H.; Zhu, Y.-G. file  url
  Title Use of commercial organic fertilizer increases the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes and antibiotics in soil Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Environmental Science and Pollution Research International Abbreviated Journal Environ Sci Pollut Res Int  
  Volume 24 Issue 1 Pages 701-710  
  Keywords Animals; Anti-Bacterial Agents/*analysis; Chickens; Drug Resistance, Microbial/*genetics; *Fertilizers; *Genes, Bacterial; Integrons; *Manure; Soil Microbiology; Soil Pollutants/*analysis; Swine; *Antibiotic resistance genes; *Antibiotics; *Commercial organic fertilizers; *Repeated applications; *Soil  
  Abstract The application of manure-based commercial organic fertilizers (COFs) is becoming increasingly extensive because of the expanding market for organic food. The present study examined the effects of repeated applications of chicken or swine manure-based COFs on the fate of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in soil by conducting a soil microcosm experiment. Application of COFs significantly increased antibiotics residues, as well as the relative abundance of ARGs and the integrase gene of class 1 integrons (intIota1) in soil. Two months after each application, antibiotics and ARGs dissipated in amended soils, but they still remained at an elevated level, compared with the control. And, the accumulation of antibiotics was found due to repeated COF applications. However, the relative abundance of ARGs in most COF-amended soils did not differ significantly between the first application and the repeated application. The results imply that 2 months are not sufficient for ARGs to approach background levels, and that animal manure must be treated more effectively prior to using it in agriculture ecosystems.  
  Call Number Serial 1803  
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