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Author (up) Andersen, S.B.; Karstoft, K.-I.; Bertelsen, M.; Madsen, T. file  url
  Title Latent trajectories of trauma symptoms and resilience: the 3-year longitudinal prospective USPER study of Danish veterans deployed in Afghanistan Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal J Clin Psychiatry  
  Volume 75 Issue 9 Pages 1001-1008  
  Keywords Adult; Afghan Campaign 2001-; Denmark/epidemiology; Female; Humans; Male; Military Personnel/psychology/statistics & numerical data; Prospective Studies; Psychiatric Status Rating Scales; *Resilience, Psychological; Risk Factors; Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology/*etiology/psychology; Time Factors; Veterans/*psychology/statistics & numerical data; Young Adult  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: To identify trajectories of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms from before to 2.5 years after deployment and to assess risk factors for symptom fluctuations and late-onset PTSD. METHOD: 743 soldiers deployed to Afghanistan in 2009 were assessed for PTSD symptoms using the PTSD Checklist (PCL) at 6 occasions from predeployment to 2.5 years postdeployment (study sample = 561). Predeployment vulnerabilities and deployment and postdeployment stressors were also assessed. RESULTS: Six trajectories were identified: a resilient trajectory with low symptom levels across all assessments (78.1%) and 5 trajectories showing symptom fluctuations. These included a trajectory of late onset (5.7%), independently predicted by earlier emotional problems (OR = 5.59; 95% CI, 1.57-19.89) and predeployment and postdeployment traumas (OR = 1.10; 95% CI, 1.04-1.17 and OR = 1.13; 95% CI, 1.00-1.26). Two trajectories of symptom fluctuations in the low-to-moderate range (7.5% and 4.1%); a trajectory of symptom relief during deployment, but with a drastic increase at the final assessments (2.0%); and a trajectory with mild symptom increase during deployment followed by relief at return (2.7%) were also found. Symptom fluctuation was predicted independently by predeployment risk factors (depression [OR = 1.27; 95% CI, 1.16-1.39], neuroticism [OR = 1.10; 95% CI, 1.00-1.21], and earlier traumas [OR = 1.09; 95% CI, 1.03-1.16]) and deployment-related stressors (danger/injury exposure [OR = 1.20; 95% CI, 1.04-1.40]), but not by postdeployment stressors. DISCUSSION: The results confirm earlier findings of stress response heterogeneity following military deployment and highlight the impact of predeployment, perideployment, and postdeployment risk factors in predicting PTSD symptomatology and late-onset PTSD symptoms.  
  Call Number Serial 1304  
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Author (up) Armstrong-Brown, J.; Eng, E.; Hammond, W.P.; Zimmer, C.; Bowling, J.M. file  url
  Title Redefining racial residential segregation and its association with physical activity among African Americans 50 years and older: a mixed methods approach Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Journal of Aging and Physical Activity Abbreviated Journal J Aging Phys Act  
  Volume 23 Issue 2 Pages 237-246  
  Keywords African Americans/*statistics & numerical data; Age Factors; Aged; Attitude to Health/*ethnology; Cross-Sectional Studies; Exercise/*physiology; Female; Geography; Humans; Interviews as Topic; Life Style; Male; Middle Aged; Motor Activity/*physiology; Multivariate Analysis; Racism/ethnology/*statistics & numerical data; Regression Analysis; Risk Assessment; Sex Factors; Time Factors; United States  
  Abstract Physical inactivity is one of the factors contributing to disproportionate disease rates among older African Americans. Previous literature indicates that older African Americans are more likely to live in racially segregated neighborhoods and that racial residential segregation is associated with limited opportunities for physical activity. A cross-sectional mixed methods study was conducted guided by the concept of therapeutic landscapes. Multilevel regression analyses demonstrated that racial residential segregation was associated with more minutes of physical activity and greater odds of meeting physical activity recommendations. Qualitative interviews revealed the following physical activity related themes: aging of the neighborhood, knowing your neighbors, feeling of safety, and neighborhood racial identity. Perceptions of social cohesion enhanced participants' physical activity, offering a plausible explanation to the higher rates of physical activity found in this population. Understanding how social cohesion operates within racially segregated neighborhoods can help to inform the design of effective interventions for this population.  
  Call Number Serial 1292  
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Author (up) Arrant, A.E.; Schramm-Sapyta, N.L.; Kuhn, C.M. file  url
  Title Use of the light/dark test for anxiety in adult and adolescent male rats Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Behavioural Brain Research Abbreviated Journal Behav Brain Res  
  Volume 256 Issue Pages 119-127  
  Keywords Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology; Age Factors; Animals; Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology; Anxiety/*diagnosis/drug therapy; Carbolines/pharmacology; Exploratory Behavior/drug effects; Factor Analysis, Statistical; *Light; Male; Motor Activity/drug effects; *Neuropsychological Tests; Rats, Sprague-Dawley; Regression Analysis; Risk-Taking; Time Factors; Yohimbine/pharmacology; Adolescence; Anxiety; Fg-7142; Factor analysis; Light/dark test; Yohimbine  
  Abstract The light/dark (LD) test is a commonly used rodent test of unconditioned anxiety-like behavior that is based on an approach/avoidance conflict between the drive to explore novel areas and an aversion to brightly lit, open spaces. We used the LD test to investigate developmental differences in behavior between adolescent (postnatal day (PN) 28-34) and adult (PN67-74) male rats. We investigated whether LD behavioral measures reflect anxiety-like behavior similarly in each age group using factor analysis and multiple regression. These analyses showed that time in the light compartment, percent distance in the light, rearing, and latency to emerge into the light compartment were measures of anxiety-like behavior in each age group, while total distance traveled and distance in the dark compartment provided indices of locomotor activity. We then used these measures to assess developmental differences in baseline LD behavior and the response to anxiogenic drugs. Adolescent rats emerged into the light compartment more quickly than adults and made fewer pokes into the light compartment. These age differences could reflect greater risk taking and less risk assessment in adolescent rats than adults. Adolescent rats were less sensitive than adults to the anxiogenic effects of the benzodiazepine inverse agonist N-methyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxamide (FG-7142) and the alpha(2) adrenergic antagonist yohimbine on anxiety-like behaviors validated by factor analysis, but locomotor variables were similarly affected. These data support the results of the factor analysis and indicate that GABAergic and noradrenergic modulation of LD anxiety-like behavior may be immature during adolescence.  
  Call Number Serial 1614  
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Author (up) Bencan, Z.; Sledge, D.; Levin, E.D. file  url
  Title Buspirone, chlordiazepoxide and diazepam effects in a zebrafish model of anxiety Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior Abbreviated Journal Pharmacol Biochem Behav  
  Volume 94 Issue 1 Pages 75-80  
  Keywords Animals; Anti-Anxiety Agents/*therapeutic use; Anxiety/*drug therapy; Behavior, Animal/drug effects; Benzodiazepines/administration & dosage/therapeutic use; Buspirone/administration & dosage/*therapeutic use; Chlordiazepoxide/administration & dosage/*therapeutic use; Cholinergic Agents/administration & dosage/therapeutic use; Diazepam/administration & dosage/*therapeutic use; *Disease Models, Animal; Diving; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Exploratory Behavior/drug effects; Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods; Serotonin Agents/administration & dosage/therapeutic use; Stress, Psychological; Time Factors; *Zebrafish  
  Abstract Zebrafish are becoming more widely used to study neurobehavioral pharmacology. We have developed a method to assess novel environment diving behavior of zebrafish as a model of stress response and anxiolytic drug effects. In a novel tank, zebrafish dwell in the bottom of the tank initially and then increase their swimming exploration to higher levels over time. We previously found that nicotine, which has anxiolytic effects in rodents and humans, significantly lessens the novel tank diving response in zebrafish. The specificity of the diving effect was validated with a novel vs. non-novel test tank. The novel tank diving response of zebrafish was tested when given three anxiolytic drugs from two different chemical and pharmacological classes: buspirone, chlordiazepoxide and diazepam. When the test tank was novel the diving response was clearly seen whereas it was significantly reduced when the test tank was not novel. Buspirone, a serotonergic (5HT(1A) receptor agonist) anxiolytic drug with some D(2) dopaminergic effect, had a pronounced anxiolytic-like effect in the zebrafish diving model at doses that did not have sedative effects. In contrast, chlordiazepoxide, a benzodiazepine anxiolytic drug, which is an effective agonist at GABA-A receptors, did not produce signs of anxiolysis in zebrafish over a broad dose range up to those that caused sedation. Diazepam another benzodiazepine anxiolytic drug did produce an anxiolytic effect at doses that did not cause sedation. The zebrafish novel tank diving task can be useful in discriminating anxiolytic drugs of several classes (serotonergic, benzodiazepines and nicotinic).  
  Call Number Serial 209  
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Author (up) Bryant, R.A. file  url
  Title Early predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication Biological Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal Biol Psychiatry  
  Volume 53 Issue 9 Pages 789-795  
  Keywords Humans; Risk Factors; Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/*psychology; Time Factors  
  Abstract The benefits of providing early intervention for people recently exposed to trauma have highlighted the need to develop means to identify people who will develop chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This review provides an overview of prospective studies that have indexed the acute reactions to trauma that are predictive of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder. Ten studies of the predictive power of the acute stress disorder diagnosis indicate that this diagnosis does not have adequate predictive power. There is no convergence across studies on any constellation of acute symptoms that predict posttraumatic stress disorder. A review of biological and cognitive mechanisms occurring in the acute posttraumatic phase suggests that these factors may provide more accurate means of predicting chronic posttraumatic stress disorder. Recommendations for future research to facilitate identification of key markers of acutely traumatized people who will develop posttraumatic stress disorder are discussed.  
  Call Number Serial 1162  
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Author (up) Bryant, R.A.; O'Donnell, M.L.; Creamer, M.; McFarlane, A.C.; Silove, D. file  url
  Title A multisite analysis of the fluctuating course of posttraumatic stress disorder Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication JAMA Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal JAMA Psychiatry  
  Volume 70 Issue 8 Pages 839-846  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Australia/epidemiology; Brain Injuries/diagnosis/epidemiology/*psychology; *Disease Progression; Female; Humans; Injury Severity Score; Male; Middle Aged; Prospective Studies; Severity of Illness Index; Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis/epidemiology/*psychology; Stress, Psychological/complications/diagnosis/epidemiology; Time Factors; Young Adult  
  Abstract IMPORTANCE: Delayed-onset posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) accounts for approximately 25% of PTSD cases. Current models do not adequately explain the delayed increases in PTSD symptoms after trauma exposure. OBJECTIVE: To test the roles of initial psychiatric reactions, mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI), and ongoing stressors on delayed-onset PTSD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: In this prospective cohort study, patients were selected from recent admissions to 4 major trauma hospitals across Australia. A total of 1084 traumatically injured patients were assessed during hospital admission from April 1, 2004, through February 28, 2006, and 785 (72.4%) were followed up at 3, 12, and 24 months after injury. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURE: Severity of PTSD was determined at each assessment with the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. RESULTS: Of those who met PTSD criteria at 24 months, 44.1% reported no PTSD at 3 months and 55.9% had subsyndromal or full PTSD. In those who displayed subsyndromal or full PTSD at 3 months, PTSD severity at 24 months was predicted by prior psychiatric disorder, initial PTSD symptom severity, and type of injury. In those who displayed no PTSD at 3 months, PTSD severity at 24 months was predicted by initial PTSD symptom severity, MTBI, length of hospitalization, and the number of stressful events experienced between 3 and 24 months. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: These data highlight the complex trajectories of PTSD symptoms over time. This study also points to the roles of ongoing stress and MTBI in delayed cases of PTSD and suggests the potential of ongoing stress to compound initial stress reactions and lead to a delayed increase in PTSD symptom severity. This study also provides initial evidence that MTBI increases the risk of delayed PTSD symptoms, particularly in those with no acute symptoms.  
  Call Number Serial 1306  
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Author (up) Burgos-Ramos, E.; Chowen, J.A.; Argente, J.; Barrios, V. file  url
  Title Regional and temporal differences in leptin signaling in rat brain Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication General and Comparative Endocrinology Abbreviated Journal Gen Comp Endocrinol  
  Volume 167 Issue 1 Pages 143-152  
  Keywords Animals; Blotting, Western; Brain/*metabolism; Cerebellum/metabolism; Hippocampus/metabolism; Hypothalamus/metabolism; Leptin/*metabolism; Male; Radioimmunoprecipitation Assay; Rats; Rats, Wistar; Signal Transduction/*physiology; Time Factors  
  Abstract Leptin regulates energy homeostasis through activation of different hypothalamic pathways. Evidence indicates that leptin is a pleiotropic hormone that acts on many brain areas, altering food intake, metabolism, and locomotion, among other functions. Because short-term effects of leptin infusion and intracellular pathways in other brain areas involved in food regulation have not been thoroughly analysed, we have studied the acute effect of intracerebroventricular leptin administration on the levels of the long form of leptin receptor (Ob-Rb), as well as on activation of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), protein kinase B (Akt), extracellular regulated kinases (ERKs) and levels of suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS3) in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, frontal cortex and cerebellum of adult male Wistar rats at 15min, 1 and 6h. The levels of Ob-Rb increased at 6h in hypothalamus only. Leptin activated the JAK2/STAT3 pathway in all areas, although in a temporally specific pattern. In contrast, this hormone decreased Akt activation in hypothalamus, hippocampus and cerebellum and ERK activation in frontal cortex, while it increased ERK activation in hypothalamus and hippocampus. These differences in modulation of Ob-Rb levels and signaling indicate that the rapid effects of leptin in non-hypothalamic areas are mediated, at least in part, through the intracellular pathways involved in hypothalamic energy balance, but in a temporally specific manner.  
  Call Number Serial 218  
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Author (up) Cefola, M.; Amodio, M.L.; Cornacchia, R.; Rinaldi, R.; Vanadia, S.; Colelli, G. url  doi
  Title Effect of atmosphere composition on the quality of ready-to-use broccoli raab (Brassica rapa L.) Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture Abbreviated Journal J Sci Food Agric  
  Volume 90 Issue 5 Pages 789-797  
  Keywords Antioxidants--analysis; Ascorbic Acid--analysis; Brassica rapa--anatomy, histology, chemistry; Carbon Dioxide--chemistry; Cell Respiration; Chlorophyll--analysis; Fast Foods; Food Handling--methods; Nutritive Value; Odors; Oxygen--chemistry; Phenols--analysis; Pigmentation; Plant Shoots--anatomy, histology, chemistry; Quality Control; Refrigeration; Seasons; Spectrophotometry; Time Factors  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Many leafy brassicas are widely used for ready-to-use salads. Broccoli raab (Brassica rapa L.), also called turnip top, or rapini, is extensively cultivated in southern Italy. The edible portion is made up of the green, immature inflorescences and the stem with its most tender leaves. Recently, interest in this crop has increased among European consumers; moreover, a substantial increase in consumption could come from the ready-to-use product. RESULTS: The effects of four different atmosphere compositions (air, 3% O(2) in nitrogen, 3% O(2) + 10% CO(2) in air, and 10% CO(2) in air) on quality attributes of ready-to-use broccoli raab were studied. Controlled atmosphere affected appearance, composition, respiration rate, weight loss, and presence of off-odours. Storage of broccoli raab florets under low oxygen conditions delayed post-cutting deterioration during storage at 5 degrees C and preserved appearance and typical odour, up to 17 days. Moreover, respiration rate as well as loss of green colour, chlorophyll and vitamin C were also slowed down in this condition. Finally, in this study no effect of controlled atmosphere storage was found on total phenols content and antioxidant activity. CONCLUSION: Results showed that cold storage in 3% O(2) can be beneficial in order to maintain quality of ready-to-use, broccoli raab for up to 17 days.  
  Call Number Serial 41  
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Author (up) Cohen, J.F.W.; Jahn, J.L.; Richardson, S.; Cluggish, S.A.; Parker, E.; Rimm, E.B. file  url
  Title Amount of Time to Eat Lunch Is Associated with Children's Selection and Consumption of School Meal Entree, Fruits, Vegetables, and Milk Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Abbreviated Journal J Acad Nutr Diet  
  Volume 116 Issue 1 Pages 123-128  
  Keywords Animals; Child; Diet; *Eating; Ethnic Groups; Female; *Food Preferences; *Food Services; Fruit; Humans; *Lunch; Male; Milk; Prospective Studies; *Schools; Students; Time Factors; Vegetables; Fruit intake; Lunch period length; Milk intake; School lunch; Vegetable intake  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: There are currently no national standards for school lunch period length and little is known about the association between the amount of time students have to eat and school food selection and consumption. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to examine plate-waste measurements from students in the control arm of the Modifying Eating and Lifestyles at School study (2011 to 2012 school year) to determine the association between amount of time to eat and school meal selection and consumption. DESIGN: We used a prospective study design using up to six repeated measures among students during the school year. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: One thousand and one students in grades 3 to 8 attending six participating elementary and middle schools in an urban, low-income school district where lunch period lengths varied from 20 to 30 minutes were included. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: School food selection and consumption were collected using plate-waste methodology. STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED: Logistic regression and mixed-model analysis of variance was used to examine food selection and consumption. RESULTS: Compared with meal-component selection when students had at least 25 minutes to eat, students were significantly less likely to select a fruit (44% vs 57%; P<0.0001) when they had <20 minutes to eat. There were no significant differences in entree, milk, or vegetable selections. Among those who selected a meal component, students with <20 minutes to eat consumed 13% less of their entree (P<0.0001), 10% less of their milk (P<0.0001), and 12% less of their vegetable (P<0.0001) compared with students who had at least 25 minutes to eat. CONCLUSIONS: During the school year, a substantial number of students had insufficient time to eat, which was associated with significantly decreased entree, milk, and vegetable consumption compared with students who had more time to eat. School policies that encourage lunches with at least 25 minutes of seated time might reduce food waste and improve dietary intake.  
  Call Number Serial 1256  
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Author (up) Conrad, K.L.; Louderback, K.M.; Gessner, C.P.; Winder, D.G. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Stress-induced alterations in anxiety-like behavior and adaptations in plasticity in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Physiology & Behavior Abbreviated Journal Physiol Behav  
  Volume 104 Issue 2 Pages 248-256  
  Keywords Adaptation, Physiological/drug effects/*physiology; Analysis of Variance; Animals; Anxiety/*etiology/*pathology; Behavior, Animal/drug effects; Biophysics; Corticosterone/adverse effects; Disease Models, Animal; Electric Stimulation; Exploratory Behavior/drug effects/physiology; Long-Term Potentiation/drug effects/*physiology; Male; Maze Learning/drug effects; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Patch-Clamp Techniques/methods; Septal Nuclei/drug effects/*physiopathology; Social Isolation/psychology; Time Factors  
  Abstract In vulnerable individuals, exposure to stressors can result in chronic disorders such as generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The extended amygdala is critically implicated in mediating acute and chronic stress responsivity and anxiety-like behaviors. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), a subregion of the extended amygdala, serves as a relay of corticolimbic information to the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) to directly influence the stress response. To investigate the influence of the corticosteroid milieu and housing conditions on BNST function, adult C57Bl/6J were either acutely or chronically administered corticosterone (CORT, 25mg/kg in sesame oil) or vehicle (sesame oil) or were group housed or socially isolated for 1 day (acute) or 6-8 weeks (chronic). To ascertain whether these stressors could influence anxiety-like behavior, studies were performed using the novel open-field (NOF) and the elevated zero maze (EZM) tests. To investigate potential associated changes in plasticity, alterations in BNST function were assessed using ex vivo extracellular field potential recordings in the (dorsal-lateral) dlBNST and a high frequency stimulus protocol to induce long-term potentiation (LTP). Our results suggest that chronic CORT injections and chronic social isolation housing conditions lead to an increase in anxiety-like behavior on the EZM and NOF. Chronically stressed mice also displayed a parallel blunting of LTP in the dlBNST. Conversely, acute social isolation housing had no effect on anxiety-like behavior but still resulted in a blunting of LTP in the dlBNST. Collectively, our results suggest acute and chronic stressors can have a distinct profile on plasticity in the BNST that is not uniformly associated with an increase in anxiety-like behavior.  
  Call Number Serial 85  
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