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Author (up) Clark, A.; Lindgren, S.; Brooks, S.P.; Watson, W.P.; Little, H.J. file  url
  Title Chronic infusion of nicotine can increase operant self-administration of alcohol Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Neuropharmacology Abbreviated Journal Neuropharmacology  
  Volume 41 Issue 1 Pages 108-117  
  Keywords Alcohol Drinking/*psychology; Animals; Central Nervous System Depressants/administration & dosage/*pharmacology; Conditioning, Operant/drug effects; Ethanol/administration & dosage/*pharmacology; Infusion Pumps, Implantable; Male; Nicotine/*pharmacology; Nicotinic Agonists/*pharmacology; Rats; Reinforcement Schedule  
  Abstract Effects of nicotine, administered by continuous infusion via osmotic minipumps, were studied on the operant self-administration of alcohol by rats, using a variable interval (15 s) schedule, and measuring the acquisition, maintenance, extinction and reinstatement of responding for alcohol. Doses of nicotine of 0.25, 1.25 and 7.5 mg/kg/24 h had no significant effects on the maintenance of responding for alcohol, but 5 mg/kg/24 h nicotine resulted in a significant increase in responding on the lever delivering the reward when water was substituted for the alcohol, indicating delayed extinction of responding. During infusion of 2.5 mg/kg/24 h nicotine, responding was significantly greater over the “sucrose-fading” training sessions, during acquisition of responding, when mixtures of alcohol and sucrose were provided as reward. When minipumps infusing 2.5 mg/kg/24 h nicotine were implanted after the alcohol responding had been acquired, the responding for alcohol increase during the first week of nicotine infusion, but corresponding nicotine infusion doses of 0.25, 1.25 and 7.5 had no significant effects. The results indicate that nicotine can increase operant responding for alcohol and this is crucially dependent on the dose of nicotine and the time of testing. The results have implications for the frequently encountered dependence on the combination of alcohol and nicotine.  
  Call Number Serial 1172  
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Author (up) Fals-Stewart, W.; Golden, J.; Schumacher, J.A. file  url
  Title Intimate partner violence and substance use: a longitudinal day-to-day examination Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication Addictive Behaviors Abbreviated Journal Addict Behav  
  Volume 28 Issue 9 Pages 1555-1574  
  Keywords Adult; Alcohol Drinking/psychology; Antisocial Personality Disorder/psychology; Cocaine-Related Disorders/psychology; Female; Humans; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Medical Records; Middle Aged; Models, Psychological; Models, Statistical; Risk Factors; Spouse Abuse/*psychology; Substance-Related Disorders/*psychology  
  Abstract The likelihood of male-to-female physical aggression on days of male partners' substance use, during a 15-month period, was examined. Participants were from married or cohabiting partner violent men entering a drug abuse treatment program (N=149). Compared to days of no drug or alcohol use, the likelihood of male-to-female physical aggression was significantly higher on days of substance use, after controlling for male partners' antisocial personality (ASP) disorder and couples' global relationship distress. Of the psychoactive substances examined, the use of alcohol and cocaine was associated with significant increases in the daily likelihood of male-to-female physical aggression; cannabis and opiates were not significantly associated with an increased likelihood of male partner violence.  
  Call Number Serial 237  
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Author (up) Hamilton, G.F.; Criss, K.J.; Klintsova, A.Y. file  url
  Title Voluntary exercise partially reverses neonatal alcohol-induced deficits in mPFC layer II/III dendritic morphology of male adolescent rats Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Synapse (New York, N.Y.) Abbreviated Journal Synapse  
  Volume 69 Issue 8 Pages 405-415  
  Keywords Animals; Animals, Newborn; Central Nervous System Depressants/blood/toxicity; Dendrites/drug effects/*pathology/physiology; Disease Models, Animal; Ethanol/blood/toxicity; Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders/*pathology/*physiopathology/therapy; Image Processing, Computer-Assisted; Male; Prefrontal Cortex/drug effects/growth & development/*pathology/physiopathology; Pyramidal Cells/drug effects/*pathology/physiology; Random Allocation; Rats, Long-Evans; Running/*physiology; Volition; fetal alcohol spectrum disorders; golgi; intervention; plasticity; wheel running  
  Abstract Developmental alcohol exposure in humans can produce a wide range of deficits collectively referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). FASD-related impairments in executive functioning later in life suggest long-term damage to the prefrontal cortex (PFC). In rodent neonates, moderate to high levels of alcohol exposure decreased frontal lobe brain size and altered medial PFC pyramidal neuron dendritic morphology. Previous research in our lab demonstrated that neonatal alcohol exposure decreased basilar dendritic complexity but did not affect spine density in Layer II/III pyramidal neurons in 26- to 30-day-old rats. The current study adds to the literature by evaluating the effect of neonatal alcohol exposure on mPFC Layer II/III basilar dendritic morphology in adolescent male rats. Additionally, it examines the potential for voluntary exercise to mitigate alcohol-induced deficits on mPFC dendritic complexity. An animal model of binge drinking during the third trimester of pregnancy was used. Rats were intubated with alcohol (alcohol-exposed, AE; 5.25 g kg(-1) day(-1)) on postnatal days (PD) 4-9; two control groups were included (suckle control and sham-intubated). Rats were anesthetized and perfused with heparinized saline solution on PD 42, and brains were processed for Golgi-Cox staining. Developmental alcohol exposure decreased spine density and dendritic complexity of basilar dendrites of Layer II/III neurons in the medial PFC (mPFC) compared to dendrites of control animals. Voluntary exercise increased spine density and dendritic length in AE animals resulting in elimination of the differences between AE and SH rats. Thus, voluntary exercise during early adolescence selectively rescued alcohol-induced morphological deficits in the mPFC.  
  Call Number Serial 1213  
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Author (up) Harrison, E.L.R.; Hinson, R.E.; McKee, S.A. file  url
  Title Experimenting and daily smokers: episodic patterns of alcohol and cigarette use Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Addictive Behaviors Abbreviated Journal Addict Behav  
  Volume 34 Issue 5 Pages 484-486  
  Keywords Adolescent; Alcohol Drinking/*psychology; Consumer Behavior; Female; Humans; Male; Ontario; Smoking/*psychology; Tobacco Use Disorder/etiology; Young Adult  
  Abstract Alcohol use may facilitate the development of nicotine dependence. Alcohol is often paired with cigarette smoking, particularly in those experimenting with smoking. However, little research has examined episodic patterns of alcohol and cigarette use. This study examined patterns of alcohol and cigarette use in a college-aged sample (n=237) designated as experimenters or smokers based on their smoking history. Participants reported their consumption of drinks and cigarettes by hour, for each hour, of a typical drinking and smoking episode. Self-reported pleasure and desire associated with smoking generally and while drinking was assessed. No group difference was observed in total number of drinks. However, experimenters delayed smoking until more drinks were consumed, suggesting they smoked after reaching binge levels of alcohol. By contrast, smokers smoked after fewer drinks. Both groups reported increased smoking while drinking and increased pleasure and desire when smoking while drinking. The increase was greater in experimenters. Concurrent alcohol and cigarette use may facilitate the development of tobacco dependence and interventions interrupting their pairing might impede the transition from experimenter to smoker.  
  Call Number Serial 1715  
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Author (up) Jiang, N.; Lee, Y.O.; Ling, P.M. file  url
  Title Association between tobacco and alcohol use among young adult bar patrons: a cross-sectional study in three cities Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication BMC Public Health Abbreviated Journal BMC Public Health  
  Volume 14 Issue Pages 500  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adolescent Health Services; Adult; Alcohol Drinking/*epidemiology/prevention & control; Cities; Cross-Sectional Studies; Female; Humans; Logistic Models; Male; Restaurants; Smoke-Free Policy; Smoking/*epidemiology/prevention & control; Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology/prevention & control; Tobacco; United States/epidemiology; Young Adult  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Bars and nightclubs are key public venues where young adults congregate and use both tobacco and alcohol, and young adult bar patrons are at high risk for substance use. This study examined the association between cigarette smoking and alcohol use among a random sample of young adult bar patrons from three different cities in the USA. METHODS: Cross-sectional data was collected from a random sample of young adult bar patrons aged 18-29 in San Diego, CA (N = 1,150), Portland, ME (N = 1,019), and Tulsa, OK (N = 1,106) from 2007-2010 (response rate 88%) using randomized time location sampling. Respondents reported the number of days they smoked cigarettes, drank alcohol, and binge drank in the past 30 days. Multinomial logistic regression was used to analyze the association between smoking (nonsmoker, occasional smoker, and regular smoker) and drinking and binge drinking for each city controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and education. Predicted probabilities of each smoking category were calculated by drinking and binge drinking status. The association between smoking and drinking and binge drinking among combined samples was also analyzed, controlling for demographic variables and city. RESULTS: Respondents reported high current smoking rates, ranging from 51% in Portland to 58% in Tulsa. Respondents in Tulsa were more likely to report regular smoking than those in San Diego and Portland, with demographic variables being controlled. Young adult bar patrons also exhibited a strong association between smoking and drinking. In general, as the frequency of drinking and binge drinking increased, the predicted probability of being a smoker, especially a regular smoker, increased in each city. CONCLUSIONS: Young adult bar patrons consistently reported a high smoking rate and a strong relationship between smoking and drinking, regardless of the different bar cultures and tobacco control contexts in each of the three cities. While smoke-free bar policies were negatively associated with regular smoking, these policies alone may not be enough to influence the association between smoking and drinking, particularly if tobacco marketing continues in these venues, or in the absence of programs specifically addressing the co-use of tobacco and alcohol.  
  Call Number Serial 1947  
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Author (up) Kim, S.S.; Lee, H. ok; Kiang, P.; Kalman, D.; Ziedonis, D.M. file  url
  Title Factors associated with alcohol problems among Asian American college students: gender, ethnicity, smoking and depressed mood Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Journal of Substance Use Abbreviated Journal Journal of Substance Use  
  Volume 19 Issue 1-2 Pages 12-17  
  Keywords Alcohol, college student, Asian, gender, smoking  
  Abstract Objective: This study examined gender, ethnicity and psychological factors associated with alcohol problems among Asian American college students, using the CAGE questionnaire. Method: The study is a cross-sectional, school-based survey. College students who self-identified as Asian, participated. Results: The sample comprised 258 Asian American college students (132 men and 126 women). In all, 17.7% of males and 8.9% of females had alcohol problems based on CAGE score of 2 or more; yet, the difference was marginally significant (χ2 [1, N = 225] = 3.7, p = 0.08). Chinese and Vietnamese males tended to have more alcohol problems than females in their respective ethnic subgroups. Among Koreans, more females (33%) had the problems than males (11%). Male students did not differ in alcohol problems by ethnicity, whereas Korean females were more likely to have the problems (χ2 [4, N = 112] = 13.0, p = 0.01) than females in the other groups. After controlling for gender, Asian American college students who were older (≥25), smoking currently and reporting depressed mood were more likely to have alcohol problems. Conclusions: College health center workers should monitor more closely Asian students who have the risk factors for early detection of and treatment for alcohol problems.  
  Call Number Serial 1948  
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Author (up) Leskovac, V.; Trivic, S.; Anderson, B.M. file  url
  Title Use of competitive dead-end inhibitors to determine the chemical mechanism of action of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 178 Issue 1-2 Pages 219-227  
  Keywords yeast; alcohol; dehydrogenase; dead-end inhibitors; mechanism of action; dehydrogenases  
  Abstract In this work, we have postulated a comprehensive and unified chemical mechanism of action for yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (EC, constitutive, cytoplasmic), isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The chemical mechanism of yeast enzyme is based on the integrity of the proton relay system: His-51....NAD+....Thr-48....R.CH2OH(H2>O)....Zn<math>++, stretching from His-51 on the surface of enzyme to the active site zinc atom in the substrate-binding site of enzyme. Further, it is based on extensive studies of steady-state kinetic properties of enzyme which were published recently. In this study, we have reported the pH-dependence of dissociation constants for several competitive dead-end inhibitors of yeast enzyme from their binary complexes with enzyme, or their ternary complexes with enzyme and NAD+ or NADH; inhibitors include: pyrazole, acetamide, sodium azide, 2-fluoroethanol, and 2,2,2-trifluorethanol. The unified mechanism describes the structures of four dissociation forms of apoenzyme, two forms of the binary complex E.NAD+, three forms of the ternary complex E.NAD+.alcohol, two forms of the ternary complex E.NADH.aldehyde and three binary complexes E.NADH. Appropriate pKa values have been ascribed to protonation forms of most of the above mentioned complexes of yeast enzyme with coenzymes and substrates.  
  Call Number Serial 1414  
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Author (up) Mallett, K.A.; Varvil-Weld, L.; Turrisi, R.; Read, A. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title An examination of college students' willingness to experience consequences as a unique predictor of alcohol problems Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Psychology of Addictive Behaviors : Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors Abbreviated Journal Psychol Addict Behav  
  Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 41-47  
  Keywords Adolescent; Alcohol Drinking/*prevention & control; Alcoholism/*prevention & control; *Attitude; Female; Humans; Male; Peer Group; Questionnaires; *Social Environment; Students; Universities  
  Abstract The focus of the study was to examine (1) the unique variance between willingness to experience specific consequences (e.g., vomit) and reported experience of the consequence after controlling for drinking, and (2) the relationships between consequence specific constructs (attitudes and norms) and willingness to experience specific consequences in the context of a structural equation model. Freshmen students (n = 167) from a large northeastern university were randomly selected to participate. Results indicated willingness to experience consequences accounted for significant variance across consequence outcomes controlling for drinking. Significant relationships were observed between consequence specific constructs (attitudes and norms) and students' willingness to experience consequences. Findings provide empirical support that alcohol-related consequences have multiple determinants and are not only a function of alcohol consumption. Prevention efforts may benefit from a more comprehensive approach that includes both drinking and consequence-specific constructs as targets of change.  
  Call Number Serial 203  
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Author (up) Naik, M.M.; Kamat, D.P.; Tilve, S.G.; Kamat, V.P. file  url
  Title Molecular iodine catalyst promoted synthesis of chromans and 4-aryl-3,4-dihydrobenzopyran-2-ones via [3+3] cyclocoupling Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Tetrahedron Abbreviated Journal Tetrahedron  
  Volume 70 Issue 34 Pages 5221-5233  
  Keywords Chroman3,4-Dihydrobenzopyran-2-oneIodine; Cyclocoupling; Solvent-free; Phenol; Allylic alcohol; Cinnamic acid  
  Abstract Molecular iodine as an inexpensive catalyst is described in the construction of 2-substituted or 2,2-disubstituted chromans and 4-aryl-3,4-dihydrobenzopyran-2-ones via [3+3] cyclocoupling. For the synthesis of chromans, phenols and allylic alcohols were refluxed in chloroform in presence of 20 mol % I2 while [3+3] cyclocoupling of phenols and cinnamic acids proceeded to give 4-aryl-3,4-dihydrobenzopyran-2-ones using 30 mol % I2. Later reaction occurs via a tandem hydroarylation–esterification process at 120–130 °C under solvent free conditions. Chromans were obtained in 20–92% yields and substituted 4-aryl-3,4-dihydrobenzopyran-2-ones were obtained in 5–85% yields.  
  Call Number Serial 1843  
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Author (up) Nigg, J.T.; Wong, M.M.; Martel, M.M.; Jester, J.M.; Puttler, L.I.; Glass, J.M.; Adams, K.M.; Fitzgerald, H.E.; Zucker, R.A. file  url
  Title Poor response inhibition as a predictor of problem drinking and illicit drug use in adolescents at risk for alcoholism and other substance use disorders Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry  
  Volume 45 Issue 4 Pages 468-475  
  Keywords Adolescent; Alcoholism/*psychology; Attention; Child; Female; Forecasting; Humans; *Inhibition (Psychology); Male; *Reaction Time; Risk Factors; Substance-Related Disorders/*psychology; Thinking  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the predictive power of executive functions, in particular, response inhibition, in relation to alcohol-related problems and illicit drug use in adolescence. METHOD: A total of 498 children from 275 families from a longitudinal high-risk study completed executive function measures in early and late adolescence and lifetime drinking and drug-related ratings at multiple time points including late adolescence (ages 15-17). Multi-informant measures of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder were obtained in early childhood (ages 3-5), middle childhood, and adolescence. RESULTS: In multilevel models, poor response inhibition predicted aggregate alcohol-related problems, the number of illicit drugs used, and comorbid alcohol and drug use (but not the number of drug-related problems), independently of IQ, parental alcoholism and antisocial personality disorder, child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and conduct symptoms, or age. Multivariate models explained 8% to 20% of residual variance in outcome scores. The incremental predictive power of response inhibition was modest, explaining about 1% of the variance in most outcomes, but more than 9% of the residual variance in problem outcomes within the highest risk families. Other measured executive functions did not independently predict substance use onset. CONCLUSION: Models of alcoholism and other drug risks that invoke executive functions may benefit from specifying response inhibition as an incremental component.  
  Call Number Serial 2059  
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