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Author (up) Calhoun, W.J.; Ameredes, B.T.; King, T.S.; Icitovic, N.; Bleecker, E.R.; Castro, M.; Cherniack, R.M.; Chinchilli, V.M.; Craig, T.; Denlinger, L.; DiMango, E.A.; Engle, L.L.; Fahy, J.V.; Grant, J.A.; Israel, E.; Jarjour, N.; Kazani, S.D.; Kraft, M.; Kunselman, S.J.; Lazarus, S.C.; Lemanske, R.F.; Lugogo, N.; Martin, R.J.; Meyers, D.A.; Moore, W.C.; Pascual, R.; Peters, S.P.; Ramsdell, J.; Sorkness, C.A.; Sutherland, E.R.; Szefler, S.J.; Wasserman, S.I.; Walter, M.J.; Wechsler, M.E.; Boushey, H.A. file  url
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  Title Comparison of physician-, biomarker-, and symptom-based strategies for adjustment of inhaled corticosteroid therapy in adults with asthma: the BASALT randomized controlled trial Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication JAMA : the Journal of the American Medical Association Abbreviated Journal Jama  
  Volume 308 Issue 10 Pages 987-997  
  Keywords Administration, Inhalation; Adrenal Cortex Hormones--administration & dosage; Adult; Asthma--complications, drug therapy, physiopathology; Biological Markers--analysis; Breath Tests; Double-Blind Method; Female; Humans; Kaplan-Meier Estimate; Male; Middle Aged; Nitric Oxide--analysis; Practice Guidelines as Topic; Respiratory Function Tests; Treatment Failure  
  Abstract CONTEXT: No consensus exists for adjusting inhaled corticosteroid therapy in patients with asthma. Approaches include adjustment at outpatient visits guided by physician assessment of asthma control (symptoms, rescue therapy, pulmonary function), based on exhaled nitric oxide, or on a day-to-day basis guided by symptoms. OBJECTIVE: To determine if adjustment of inhaled corticosteroid therapy based on exhaled nitric oxide or day-to-day symptoms is superior to guideline-informed, physician assessment-based adjustment in preventing treatment failure in adults with mild to moderate asthma. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A randomized, parallel, 3-group, placebo-controlled, multiply-blinded trial of 342 adults with mild to moderate asthma controlled by low-dose inhaled corticosteroid therapy (n = 114 assigned to physician assessment-based adjustment [101 completed], n = 115 to biomarker-based [exhaled nitric oxide] adjustment [92 completed], and n = 113 to symptom-based adjustment [97 completed]), the Best Adjustment Strategy for Asthma in the Long Term (BASALT) trial was conducted by the Asthma Clinical Research Network at 10 academic medical centers in the United States for 9 months between June 2007 and July 2010. INTERVENTIONS: For physician assessment-based adjustment and biomarker-based (exhaled nitric oxide) adjustment, the dose of inhaled corticosteroids was adjusted every 6 weeks; for symptom-based adjustment, inhaled corticosteroids were taken with each albuterol rescue use. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The primary outcome was time to treatment failure. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in time to treatment failure. The 9-month Kaplan-Meier failure rates were 22% (97.5% CI, 14%-33%; 24 events) for physician assessment-based adjustment, 20% (97.5% CI, 13%-30%; 21 events) for biomarker-based adjustment, and 15% (97.5% CI, 9%-25%; 16 events) for symptom-based adjustment. The hazard ratio for physician assessment-based adjustment vs biomarker-based adjustment was 1.2 (97.5% CI, 0.6-2.3). The hazard ratio for physician assessment-based adjustment vs symptom-based adjustment was 1.6 (97.5% CI, 0.8-3.3). CONCLUSION: Among adults with mild to moderate persistent asthma controlled with low-dose inhaled corticosteroid therapy, the use of either biomarker-based or symptom-based adjustment of inhaled corticosteroids was not superior to physician assessment-based adjustment of inhaled corticosteroids in time to treatment failure.  
  Call Number Serial 548  
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Author (up) Dzidic, M.; Abrahamsson, T.R.; Artacho, A.; Bjorksten, B.; Collado, M.C.; Mira, A.; Jenmalm, M.C. file  url
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  Title Aberrant IgA responses to the gut microbiota during infancy precede asthma and allergy development Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology Abbreviated Journal J Allergy Clin Immunol  
  Volume 139 Issue 3 Pages 1017-1025.e14  
  Keywords Bacteria/isolation & purification; Bacterial Load; Child; Child, Preschool; Feces/*microbiology; Female; *Gastrointestinal Microbiome; Humans; Hypersensitivity/*immunology/*microbiology; Immunoglobulin A/*immunology; Infant; Male; Allergic disease; IgA index; IgA recognition patterns; asthma; childhood; gut microbiota; microbiome composition; secretory IgA  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Although a reduced gut microbiota diversity and low mucosal total IgA levels in infancy have been associated with allergy development, IgA responses to the gut microbiota have not yet been studied. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the proportions of IgA coating together with the characterization of the dominant bacteria, bound to IgA or not, in infant stool samples in relation to allergy development. METHODS: A combination of flow cytometric cell sorting and deep sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene was used to characterize the bacterial recognition patterns by IgA in stool samples collected at 1 and 12 months of age from children staying healthy or having allergic symptoms up to 7 years of age. RESULTS: The children with allergic manifestations, particularly asthma, during childhood had a lower proportion of IgA bound to fecal bacteria at 12 months of age compared with healthy children. These alterations cannot be attributed to differences in IgA levels or bacterial load between the 2 groups. Moreover, the bacterial targets of early IgA responses (including coating of the Bacteroides genus), as well as IgA recognition patterns, differed between healthy children and children with allergic manifestations. Altered IgA recognition patterns in children with allergy were observed already at 1 month of age, when the IgA antibodies are predominantly maternally derived in breast-fed children. CONCLUSION: An aberrant IgA responsiveness to the gut microbiota during infancy precedes asthma and allergy development, possibly indicating an impaired mucosal barrier function in allergic children.  
  Call Number Serial 1933  
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Author (up) Eduard, W. file  url
openurl 
  Title Do farming exposures cause or prevent asthma? Results from a study of adult Norwegian farmers Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Thorax Abbreviated Journal Thorax  
  Volume 59 Issue 5 Pages 381-386  
  Keywords Endotoxin exposure; Asthma; Atopy  
  Abstract Background: A protective effect of endotoxin exposure on atopy and asthma in farmersí children has been postulated. Studies of adult farmers have shown conflicting results but often lack exposure data. The prevalence of asthma in farmers with different exposure levels to microbial agents and irritant gases was compared.

Methods: Atopy was defined as a positive response to multiple radioallergosorbent tests (RAST) with a panel of 10 common respiratory allergens, and asthma was ascertained by a questionnaire using a stratified sample (n = 2169) of a farming population from south-eastern Norway. Exposure of farmers to total dust, fungal spores, bacteria, endotoxins, and ammonia was assessed by exposure measurements.

Results: The prevalence of asthma was 3.7% for physician diagnosed asthma and 2.7% for current asthma. The prevalence of atopy was 14%, but most asthmatic subjects were non-atopic (80%). Compared with farmers without livestock, (1) asthma was significantly higher in cattle farmers (ORadj 1.8, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.8) and pig farmers (ORadj 1.6, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.5), (2) non-atopic asthma was significantly higher in pig farmers (ORadj 2.0, 95% CI 1.2 to 3.3) and in farmers with two or more types of livestock (ORadj 1.9, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.3), and (3) atopic asthma was less common in farmers with two or more types of livestock (ORadj 0.32, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.97). Exposure to endotoxins, fungal spores, and ammonia was positively associated with non-atopic asthma and negatively associated with atopic asthma. No associations were found with atopy.

Conclusions: Exposure to endotoxins and fungal spores appears to have a protective effect on atopic asthma but may induce non-atopic asthma in farmers.
 
  Call Number Serial 2118  
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Author (up) Eduard, W. file  url
openurl 
  Title Do farming exposures cause or prevent asthma? Results from a study of adult Norwegian farmers Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Thorax Abbreviated Journal Thorax  
  Volume 59 Issue 5 Pages 381-386  
  Keywords Asthma; Atopy  
  Abstract Background: A protective effect of endotoxin exposure on atopy and asthma in farmersí children has been postulated. Studies of adult farmers have shown conflicting results but often lack exposure data. The prevalence of asthma in farmers with different exposure levels to microbial agents and irritant gases was compared.

Methods: Atopy was defined as a positive response to multiple radioallergosorbent tests (RAST) with a panel of 10 common respiratory allergens, and asthma was ascertained by a questionnaire using a stratified sample (n = 2169) of a farming population from south-eastern Norway. Exposure of farmers to total dust, fungal spores, bacteria, endotoxins, and ammonia was assessed by exposure measurements.

Results: The prevalence of asthma was 3.7% for physician diagnosed asthma and 2.7% for current asthma. The prevalence of atopy was 14%, but most asthmatic subjects were non-atopic (80%). Compared with farmers without livestock, (1) asthma was significantly higher in cattle farmers (ORadj 1.8, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.8) and pig farmers (ORadj 1.6, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.5), (2) non-atopic asthma was significantly higher in pig farmers (ORadj 2.0, 95% CI 1.2 to 3.3) and in farmers with two or more types of livestock (ORadj 1.9, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.3), and (3) atopic asthma was less common in farmers with two or more types of livestock (ORadj 0.32, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.97). Exposure to endotoxins, fungal spores, and ammonia was positively associated with non-atopic asthma and negatively associated with atopic asthma. No associations were found with atopy.

Conclusions: Exposure to endotoxins and fungal spores appears to have a protective effect on atopic asthma but may induce non-atopic asthma in farmers.
 
  Call Number Serial 2119  
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Author (up) Ege, M.J.; Mayer, M.; Normand, A.-C.; Genuneit, J.; Cookson, W.O.C.M.; Braun-Fahrlander, C.; Heederik, D.; Piarroux, R.; von Mutius, E. file  url
openurl 
  Title Exposure to environmental microorganisms and childhood asthma Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication The New England Journal of Medicine Abbreviated Journal N Engl J Med  
  Volume 364 Issue 8 Pages 701-709  
  Keywords Adolescent; *Agriculture; Asthma/*epidemiology/immunology; Bacteria/*isolation & purification; Biodiversity; Child; Cross-Sectional Studies; Dust/analysis; Environmental Exposure/*analysis; Female; Fungi/*isolation & purification; Humans; Hypersensitivity/*epidemiology/immunology; Immunoglobulin E/blood; Logistic Models; Male; Microbiome; Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational; Prevalence; Risk Factors; Surveys and Questionnaires  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Children who grow up in environments that afford them a wide range of microbial exposures, such as traditional farms, are protected from childhood asthma and atopy. In previous studies, markers of microbial exposure have been inversely related to these conditions. METHODS: In two cross-sectional studies, we compared children living on farms with those in a reference group with respect to the prevalence of asthma and atopy and to the diversity of microbial exposure. In one study--PARSIFAL (Prevention of Allergy-Risk Factors for Sensitization in Children Related to Farming and Anthroposophic Lifestyle)--samples of mattress dust were screened for bacterial DNA with the use of single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analyses to detect environmental bacteria that cannot be measured by means of culture techniques. In the other study--GABRIELA (Multidisciplinary Study to Identify the Genetic and Environmental Causes of Asthma in the European Community [GABRIEL] Advanced Study)--samples of settled dust from children's rooms were evaluated for bacterial and fungal taxa with the use of culture techniques. RESULTS: In both studies, children who lived on farms had lower prevalences of asthma and atopy and were exposed to a greater variety of environmental microorganisms than the children in the reference group. In turn, diversity of microbial exposure was inversely related to the risk of asthma (odds ratio for PARSIFAL, 0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.44 to 0.89; odds ratio for GABRIELA, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.75 to 0.99). In addition, the presence of certain more circumscribed exposures was also inversely related to the risk of asthma; this included exposure to species in the fungal taxon eurotium (adjusted odds ratio, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.18 to 0.76) and to a variety of bacterial species, including Listeria monocytogenes, bacillus species, corynebacterium species, and others (adjusted odds ratio, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.86). CONCLUSIONS: Children living on farms were exposed to a wider range of microbes than were children in the reference group, and this exposure explains a substantial fraction of the inverse relation between asthma and growing up on a farm. (Funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and the European Commission.).  
  Call Number Serial 1983  
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Author (up) von Mutius, E.; Radon, K. file  url
openurl 
  Title Living on a farm: impact on asthma induction and clinical course Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America Abbreviated Journal Immunol Allergy Clin North Am  
  Volume 28 Issue 3 Pages 631-47, ix-x  
  Keywords Adult; *Agriculture; Animals; Animals, Domestic; Asthma/*prevention & control; Child; *Environmental Exposure; Humans; Hypersensitivity/prevention & control; Microbiome; Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal/prevention & control; *Rural Health; Rural Population  
  Abstract Exposure to a farming environment protects individuals from respiratory allergy. The timing and duration of exposure seem to play critical roles. The largest reduction in risk of developing respiratory allergies is seen among those who are exposed prenatally and continuously thereafter. Contact with farm animals, at least in childhood, likely confers protection; other factors have not been completely identified. Also, the consumption of milk directly from the farm during childhood has been shown to be beneficial with respect to childhood asthma and allergies. Increased levels of microbial substances may contribute to the protective effects. The mechanisms by which such environmental exposures confer protection from respiratory allergies are not well understood. A number of gene-by-environment interactions have been observed with polymorphisms in genes of innate immunity receptors and exposure to farming environments. Increased levels of microbial exposures recognized by innate immune responses may affect adaptive immune responses resulting in decreased levels of atopic sensitization and asthma.  
  Call Number Serial 1992  
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Author (up) West, C.E.; Jenmalm, M.C.; Kozyrskyj, A.L.; Prescott, S.L. file  url
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  Title Probiotics for treatment and primary prevention of allergic diseases and asthma: looking back and moving forward Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Expert Review of Clinical Immunology Abbreviated Journal Expert Rev Clin Immunol  
  Volume 12 Issue 6 Pages 625-639  
  Keywords Animals; Asthma/*therapy; Humans; Hypersensitivity/*therapy; *Immunity, Mucosal; Meta-Analysis as Topic; *Microbiota; Primary Prevention/trends; Probiotics/*therapeutic use; Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic; *Diversity; *dysbiosis; *eczema; *gut microbiome; *hygiene hypothesis; *primary prevention; *probiotic  
  Abstract Microbial ecosystems cover the surface of the human body and it is becoming increasingly clear that our modern environment has profound effects on microbial composition and diversity. A dysbiotic gut microbiota has been associated with allergic diseases and asthma in cross-sectional and observational studies. In an attempt to restore this dysbiosis, probiotics have been evaluated in randomized controlled trials. Here, we review treatment and primary prevention studies, recent meta-analyses, and discuss the current understanding of the role of probiotics in this context. Many meta-analyses have shown a moderate benefit of probiotics for eczema prevention, whereas there is less evidence of a benefit for other allergic manifestations. Because of very low quality evidence and heterogeneity between studies, specific advice on the most effective regimens cannot yet be given – not even for eczema prevention. To be able to adopt results into specific recommendations, international expert organizations stress the need for well-designed studies.  
  Call Number Serial 1932  
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Author (up) Wlasiuk, G.; Vercelli, D. file  url
openurl 
  Title The farm effect, or: when, what and how a farming environment protects from asthma and allergic disease Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology Abbreviated Journal Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol  
  Volume 12 Issue 5 Pages 461-466  
  Keywords *Agriculture; Allergens/immunology; Animals; Asthma/epidemiology/immunology/*prevention & control; Cattle; Environmental Exposure; Humans; Hypersensitivity, Immediate/epidemiology/immunology/*prevention & control; Metagenome; Mice; Microbiome  
  Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Multiple studies have shown that the prevalence of asthma and atopy is reduced in children raised on traditional dairy farms. This article discusses the temporal constraints for the protective farm effect, the components of a farming environment that are associated with protection, and novel mechanisms that may underlie protection from asthma and atopy in farming populations. RECENT FINDINGS: Protection from asthma and allergy is strongest when exposure occurs in utero or early in life, but the protective effects can persist into adulthood. Just three exposures (contact with cows and straw and consumption of unprocessed cow's milk) account for virtually all the protective farm effect for asthma but not atopy. Whey proteins appear to be critical for the protective effects of farm milk, whereas the high microbial diversity existing in a farm environment is strongly and inversely associated with asthma, but only weakly associated with atopy. Therefore, distinct mechanisms are likely to mediate protection from asthma and atopy. The biological significance of microbial diversity is still unclear, but multiple lines of evidence link the asthma-protective and allergy-protective effects of farming to immune responses and the microbiome. Work in mouse models is revealing novel cellular and molecular mechanisms through which the microbiota may modulate immune responses and allergic inflammation, and thus contribute to the farm effect. The role of the host's genetic makeup, on the contrary, remains poorly understood. SUMMARY: The discovery of the central role played by microbial diversity in the asthma-protective and allergy-protective effects of farming warrants metagenomic studies that concertedly and longitudinally investigate the microbiome, the genome, and the immune system of farmers and the farms they live on.  
  Call Number Serial 1984  
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