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Author (up) Dzidic, M.; Abrahamsson, T.R.; Artacho, A.; Bjorksten, B.; Collado, M.C.; Mira, A.; Jenmalm, M.C. file  url
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  Title Aberrant IgA responses to the gut microbiota during infancy precede asthma and allergy development Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology Abbreviated Journal J Allergy Clin Immunol  
  Volume 139 Issue 3 Pages 1017-1025.e14  
  Keywords Bacteria/isolation & purification; Bacterial Load; Child; Child, Preschool; Feces/*microbiology; Female; *Gastrointestinal Microbiome; Humans; Hypersensitivity/*immunology/*microbiology; Immunoglobulin A/*immunology; Infant; Male; Allergic disease; IgA index; IgA recognition patterns; asthma; childhood; gut microbiota; microbiome composition; secretory IgA  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Although a reduced gut microbiota diversity and low mucosal total IgA levels in infancy have been associated with allergy development, IgA responses to the gut microbiota have not yet been studied. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the proportions of IgA coating together with the characterization of the dominant bacteria, bound to IgA or not, in infant stool samples in relation to allergy development. METHODS: A combination of flow cytometric cell sorting and deep sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene was used to characterize the bacterial recognition patterns by IgA in stool samples collected at 1 and 12 months of age from children staying healthy or having allergic symptoms up to 7 years of age. RESULTS: The children with allergic manifestations, particularly asthma, during childhood had a lower proportion of IgA bound to fecal bacteria at 12 months of age compared with healthy children. These alterations cannot be attributed to differences in IgA levels or bacterial load between the 2 groups. Moreover, the bacterial targets of early IgA responses (including coating of the Bacteroides genus), as well as IgA recognition patterns, differed between healthy children and children with allergic manifestations. Altered IgA recognition patterns in children with allergy were observed already at 1 month of age, when the IgA antibodies are predominantly maternally derived in breast-fed children. CONCLUSION: An aberrant IgA responsiveness to the gut microbiota during infancy precedes asthma and allergy development, possibly indicating an impaired mucosal barrier function in allergic children.  
  Call Number Serial 1933  
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Author (up) Tremblay, R.E. file  url
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  Title Developmental origins of chronic physical aggression: An international perspective on using singletons, twins and epigenetics Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication European Journal of Criminology Abbreviated Journal European Journal of Criminology  
  Volume 12 Issue 5 Pages 551-561  
  Keywords Adolescents, adults, bio-psycho-social mechanisms, children, crime, criminals, delinquents, development, early childhood, environment, epigenetics, genetics, life-span, physical aggression, prevention, trajectories  
  Abstract This article takes an international and historical perspective to discuss the present state of knowledge on the developmental origins of physical aggression and its implications for the prevention of chronic physical aggression. An increasing number of longitudinal studies of singleton and twins initiated at birth or during the first few years of life are showing that physical aggressions are more frequent in early childhood than at any other time during the life-span. Because chronic physical aggression generally starts in early childhood, preventive interventions during this period are much more likely to be effective and substantially decrease the costs of criminal behavior during adolescence and early adulthood. Unfortunately, most criminological studies on physical aggression development and prevention target the adolescent and adulthood periods and do not take into account gene–environment contributions. Early childhood studies are needed to identify early bio-psycho-social mechanisms that put individuals on a chronic trajectory of physical aggression from early childhood to adulthood. These studies can also help identify the preventive interventions that are most effective in preventing a life-course of crime and misery. Developmental criminology needs to take a bio-psycho-social intergenerational and life-span perspective as well as focus more systematically on females as the key target for intergenerational prevention of chronic physical aggression.  
  Call Number Serial 2028  
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