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Author (up) Bluestone, M file  url
  Title Pitfalls of Genetic Testing Type Journal Article
  Year 1992 Publication Nature Biotechnology Abbreviated Journal Nat Biotechnol  
  Volume 10 Issue 11 Pages 1394-1398  
  Call Number Serial 740  
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Author (up) Cleary, M.D.; Meiering, C.D.; Jan, E.; Guymon, R.; Boothroyd, J.C. file  url
  Title Biosynthetic labeling of RNA with uracil phosphoribosyltransferase allows cell-specific microarray analysis of mRNA synthesis and decay Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Nature Biotechnology Abbreviated Journal Nat Biotechnol  
  Volume 23 Issue 2 Pages 232-237  
  Keywords Animals; Gene Expression Profiling/*methods; Gene Expression Regulation/*physiology; Humans; Metabolic Clearance Rate; Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis/*methods; Pentosyltransferases/chemistry/*metabolism; RNA, Messenger/chemistry/*genetics/*metabolism; Signal Transduction/physiology; Staining and Labeling/methods; Toxoplasma/genetics/metabolism; Transcription Factors/*metabolism; Transcriptional Activation/*physiology  
  Abstract Standard microarrays measure mRNA abundance, not mRNA synthesis, and therefore cannot identify the mechanisms that regulate gene expression. We have developed a method to overcome this limitation by using the salvage enzyme uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRT) from the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. T. gondii UPRT has been well characterized because of its application in monitoring parasite growth: mammals lack this enzyme activity and thus only the parasite incorporates (3)H-uracil into its nucleic acids. In this study we used RNA labeling by UPRT to determine the roles of mRNA synthesis and decay in the control of gene expression during T. gondii asexual development. We also used this approach to specifically label parasite RNA during a mouse infection and to incorporate thio-substituted uridines into the RNA of human cells engineered to express T. gondii UPRT, indicating that engineered UPRT expression will allow cell-specific analysis of gene expression in organisms other than T. gondii.  
  Call Number Serial 1344  
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Author (up) Janis, M.D.; Kesan, J.P. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Intellectual property protection for plant innovation: unresolved issues after J.E.M. v. Pioneer Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication Nature Biotechnology Abbreviated Journal Nat Biotechnol  
  Volume 20 Issue 11 Pages 1161-1164  
  Keywords Agriculture/*legislation & jurisprudence; Crops, Agricultural; Disclosure/legislation & jurisprudence; Entrepreneurship/*legislation & jurisprudence; Hybridization, Genetic; Inbreeding; Intellectual Property; Liability, Legal; Ownership; Patents as Topic/*legislation & jurisprudence; Plants, Genetically Modified; *Supreme Court Decisions; United States  
  Abstract In December 2001, the U.S. Supreme Court confirmed that plants are eligible subject matter for protection under the utility patent regime, notwithstanding the existence of limited forms of intellectual property protection for plants under the Plant Patent Act (PPA) and the Plant Variety Protection Act (PVPA). As fundamental as the J.E.M. decision may be, the Supreme Court confronted only one relatively narrow issue of patent acquisition in J.E.M. It will now fall to the lower courts to work out how numerous other issues of patent law doctrine apply to plants, and to Congress to consider broader policy issues concerning the relationship among IP regimes for plants. In this article, we analyze the J.E.M. decision, identify issues that J.E.M. leaves unresolved, and explain how those issues have begun to manifest themselves in recent plant IP disputes.

The J.E.M. case concerned an issue of patent acquisition, and so the Court had no occasion to comment on issues of patent scope and enforcement of patents on plant-related innovation. One such issue is whether patent infringement can occur as a consequence of pollen drift. In this case, we conclude that courts (and legislatures) would be well-advised to not craft a special infringement regime for patented plants.

Seed saving by farmers raises issues that are analytically similar to those surrounding experimental use in patent law. Whereas the utility patent statute includes no express exemption from infringement for patented seed that a farmer saves and re-uses, the PVPA does include a narrow saved-seed exemption. Sellers can limit the scope of an implied license by employing express license restrictions as a condition on the sale of the patented item. Whether these agreements can be enforced has recently been the subject of litigation. Major seed producers typically include express license restrictions on seed bags (called “bag tag” or “seed-wrap” licenses), when purchasing seed. In a recent decision, the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit upheld Monsanto's Roundup Ready technology agreement against a challenge mounted by a Mississippi farmer, Homan McFarling.

The McFarling case and others like it are likely to spur state legislatures into passing legislation that will seek to regulate contracting practices in seed producer-grower transactions. Within the past year, seed-contract legislation has been proposed in numerous states in the Farm Belt. Some legislative proposals purport to outlaw contract provisions that prohibit seed saving. Some prohibit contract provisions that specify where the grower will be subject to suit for patent infringement. Proposals of this type may well prove controversial. Although states have authority to regulate contracts (including IP contracts) affecting their citizens, states lack authority to enact regulations that conflict with federal IP regime. Courts may well be called upon to draw the line in future cases involving seed-wrap license agreements that arguably conflict with state regulations.

Turning away from patent law doctrine towards broader policy concerns, one major policy question after J.E.M. is whether there remains a meaningful long-term role for plant variety protection under the PVPA. PVPA protection is cheaper to obtain than is utility patent protection, and may facilitate branding. In addition, PVPA protection may be superior to trade secret protection in that trade secret protection does not preclude reverse engineering. However, we expect that utility patent protection will quickly emerge as the dominant form of IP protection for the domestic seed industry. Whether this arrangement is optimal will be an important future question for IP policymakers.
  Call Number Serial 186  
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Author (up) Jovin, T.M. file  url
  Title Quantum dots finally come of age Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication Nature Biotechnology Abbreviated Journal Nat Biotechnol  
  Volume 21 Issue 1 Pages 32-33  
  Keywords Crystallization/*methods; Diagnostic Imaging/instrumentation/*methods; Electrochemistry; Fluorescent Antibody Technique/methods; *Fluorescent Dyes; Microchemistry/methods; Microspheres; Nanotechnology/methods; Semiconductors; Spectrometry, Fluorescence/instrumentation/*methods; Staining and Labeling/instrumentation/*methods  
  Abstract Two reports demonstrate the specific labeling of cellular constituents with fluorescent quantum dot probes conjugated covalently or electrostatically to antibodies and streptavidin.  
  Call Number Serial 1986  
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Author (up) Li, S.; Jiang, Q.; Liu, S.; Zhang, Y.; Tian, Y.; Song, C.; Wang, J.; Zou, Y.; Anderson, G.J.; Han, J.-Y.; Chang, Y.; Liu, Y.; Zhang, C.; Chen, L.; Zhou, G.; Nie, G.; Yan, H.; Ding, B.; Zhao, Y. file  url
  Title A DNA nanorobot functions as a cancer therapeutic in response to a molecular trigger in vivo Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Nature Biotechnology Abbreviated Journal Nat Biotechnol  
  Volume 36 Issue Pages 258264  
  Keywords Nanoscale; Robots; Drug delivery; Molecular trigger; Tumors; Cancer; Therapy  
  Abstract Nanoscale robots have potential as intelligent drug delivery systems that respond to molecular triggers. Using DNA origami we constructed an autonomous DNA robot programmed to transport payloads and present them specifically in tumors. Our nanorobot is functionalized on the outside with a DNA aptamer that binds nucleolin, a protein specifically expressed on tumor-associated endothelial cells, and the blood coagulation protease thrombin within its inner cavity. The nucleolin-targeting aptamer serves both as a targeting domain and as a molecular trigger for the mechanical opening of the DNA nanorobot. The thrombin inside is thus exposed and activates coagulation at the tumor site. Using tumor-bearing mouse models, we demonstrate that intravenously injected DNA nanorobots deliver thrombin specifically to tumor-associated blood vessels and induce intravascular thrombosis, resulting in tumor necrosis and inhibition of tumor growth. The nanorobot proved safe and immunologically inert in mice and Bama miniature pigs. Our data show that DNA nanorobots represent a promising strategy for precise drug delivery in cancer therapy.  
  Call Number Serial 2183  
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Author (up) Parsons, A.B.; Brost, R.L.; Ding, H.; Li, Z.; Zhang, C.; Sheikh, B.; Brown, G.W.; Kane, P.M.; Hughes, T.R.; Boone, C. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Integration of chemical-genetic and genetic interaction data links bioactive compounds to cellular target pathways Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Nature Biotechnology Abbreviated Journal Nat Biotechnol  
  Volume 22 Issue 1 Pages 62-69  
  Keywords Biotechnology/*methods; Cluster Analysis; Drug Industry/*methods; *Drug Resistance; Fungal Proteins/metabolism; Gene Deletion; *Gene Expression Regulation; Mutation; Pharmacogenetics; Proton-Translocating ATPases/metabolism; Saccharomyces cerevisiae/*genetics; Software  
  Abstract Bioactive compounds can be valuable research tools and drug leads, but it is often difficult to identify their mechanism of action or cellular target. Here we investigate the potential for integration of chemical-genetic and genetic interaction data to reveal information about the pathways and targets of inhibitory compounds. Taking advantage of the existing complete set of yeast haploid deletion mutants, we generated drug-hypersensitivity (chemical-genetic) profiles for 12 compounds. In addition to a set of compound-specific interactions, the chemical-genetic profiles identified a large group of genes required for multidrug resistance. In particular, yeast mutants lacking a functional vacuolar H(+)-ATPase show multidrug sensitivity, a phenomenon that may be conserved in mammalian cells. By filtering chemical-genetic profiles for the multidrug-resistant genes and then clustering the compound-specific profiles with a compendium of large-scale genetic interaction profiles, we were able to identify target pathways or proteins. This method thus provides a powerful means for inferring mechanism of action.  
  Call Number Serial 339  
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