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Author (up) Alfermann, D.; Stambulova, N.; Zemaityte, A. file  url
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  Title Reactions to sport career termination: a cross-national comparison of German, Lithuanian, and Russian athletes Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Psychology of Sport and Exercise Abbreviated Journal Psychology of Sport and Exercise  
  Volume 5 Issue 1 Pages 61-75  
  Keywords Sport Career Termination; Coping; Cross-national Comparison; Counselling  
  Abstract Objectives: To assess the cognitive, emotional, and behavioural consequences of sport career termination of national and international level athletes in three nations.

Design and methods: Athletes of Germany (n=88), Lithuania (n=65), and Russia (n=101) were asked to describe in retrospect their reactions to career termination. The Athletic Retirement Questionnaire developed by the first two authors and presented in three corresponding languages was used. Planning of retirement and national identity served as independent variables. Dependent variables were reasons and circumstances for career termination, participants’ emotional reactions, coping reactions, athletic identity during and after sport career, and adjustment to life after career termination.

Results: Analyses of variance revealed significant main effects of retirement planning and national identity on most dependent variables. Planning of retirement contributed to significantly better cognitive, emotional, and behavioural adaptation. In addition, high athletic identity contributed to less positive reactions to retirement and to more problems in the adaptation process. The emotional reactions of Russian and Lithuanian athletes were similar, but differed from the German athletes who, in general, showed more positive and lesser negative emotions after retirement. Though accepting the reality of retirement was the most often used coping strategy among all participants, Lithuanian athletes showed more denial and Russian athletes more distraction strategies after retirement than the other nations.

Discussion: The results are discussed with regard to athletes’ readiness for career transition in different social and cultural environments. Recommendations are given on how to help athletes to prepare for and to cope with career termination.
 
  Call Number Serial 628  
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Author (up) Azuma, T. file  url
openurl 
  Title Working memory and perseveration in verbal fluency Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Neuropsychology Abbreviated Journal Neuropsychology  
  Volume 18 Issue 1 Pages 69-77  
  Keywords Analysis of Variance; Humans; Memory, Short-Term/*physiology; Neuropsychological Tests; Random Allocation; Semantics; Task Performance and Analysis; Verbal Behavior/*physiology; Verbal Learning/*physiology; Vocabulary  
  Abstract Letter and semantic fluency tasks are often used in neuropsychological assessment and are sensitive to many conditions. Performance is assessed by correct responses and errors, including perseverations. Healthy young adults performed letter and semantic fluency tasks. One group performed these tasks in the conventional manner; 2 other groups performed them while maintaining memory loads. The memory loads consisted either of words from the same category as the fluency task or of words from a different category. The results showed little effect of memory loads on correct responses but significant effects of memory load on perseveration rates: Same-category loads resulted in higher rates, especially in letter fluency. The results are discussed in terms of frontal lobe function in verbal fluency.  
  Call Number Serial 239  
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Author (up) Backberg, M.; Meister, B. file  url
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  Title Abnormal cholinergic and GABAergic vascular innervation in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of obese tub/tub mice Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Synapse (New York, N.Y.) Abbreviated Journal Synapse  
  Volume 52 Issue 4 Pages 245-257  
  Keywords Acetylcholine/*metabolism; Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; Animals; Arcuate Nucleus of Hypothalamus/blood supply/*metabolism; Blood Vessels/innervation; Carrier Proteins/metabolism; Glutamate Decarboxylase/metabolism; Immunohistochemistry; *Membrane Transport Proteins; Mice; Mutation; Obesity/*physiopathology; Polymerase Chain Reaction; Presynaptic Terminals/metabolism; Proteins/*genetics; Synaptophysin/metabolism; Vesicular Acetylcholine Transport Proteins; *Vesicular Transport Proteins; gamma-Aminobutyric Acid/*metabolism  
  Abstract Tubby and tubby-like proteins (TULPs) are encoded by members of a small gene family. An autosomal recessive mutation in the mouse tub gene leads to blindness, deafness, and maturity-onset obesity. The mechanisms by which the mutation causes the obesity syndrome has not been established. We compared obese tub/tub mice and their lean littermates in order to find abnormalities within the mediobasal hypothalamus, a region intimately associated with the regulation of body weight. Using an antiserum to the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), a marker for cholinergic neurons, many unusually large VAChT-immunoreactive (-ir) nerve terminals, identified by colocalization with the synaptic vesicle protein synaptophysin, were demonstrated in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of obese tub/tub mice. Double-labeling showed that VAChT-ir nerve endings also contained glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), a marker for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons. The VAChT- and GAD-ir nerve terminals were in close contact with blood vessels, identified with antisera to platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM; also called CD31), laminin, smooth muscle actin (SMA), and glucose transporter-1 (GLUT1). Such large cholinergic and GABAergic nerve terminals surrounding blood vessels were not seen in the arcuate nucleus of lean tub/+ mice. The presence of abnormal cholinergic/GABAergic vascular innervation in the arcuate nucleus suggests that alterations in this region, which contains neurons that receive information from the periphery and which relays information about the energy status to other parts of the brain, may be central in the development of the obese phenotype in animals with an autosomal recessive mutation in the tub gene.  
  Call Number Serial 1460  
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Author (up) Barlett, P.F. file  url
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  Title Three Visions of Masculine Success on American Farms Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Men and Masculinities Abbreviated Journal Men and Masculinities  
  Volume 7 Issue 2 Pages 205-227  
  Keywords masculinity farming sustainable agriculture women’s work depression success Georgia Iowa Illinois  
  Abstract Anthropological, sociological, historical, and psychological approaches are combined to explore three divergent orientations to masculine success among American farmers. With a focus on the moral economy of the family, we link dimensions of work, livelihood, and marital partnership to the emotional consequences of women’s off-farm work. We contrast agrarian and industrial ideals found in Georgia, Iowa, and Illinois and connect their emergence to the transformation of the American economy over the last 100 years. Psychological and survey data from an Iowa study show some preliminary support for the Georgia findings that a more industrial notion of farmers’masculinity, emphasizing income and lifestyle and an expectation that a man will be the sole breadwinner of the family, confers a heavier emotional burden in a time of financial crisis. The Midwestern sustainable agriculture movement has given rise to a “third wave” of masculinity, a less competitive and individualistic ideology, emerging from a more global ecological awareness.  
  Call Number Serial 1590  
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Author (up) Barzilai, A.; Yamamoto, K.-I. file  url
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  Title DNA damage responses to oxidative stress Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication DNA Repair Abbreviated Journal DNA Repair (Amst)  
  Volume 3 Issue 8-9 Pages 1109-1115  
  Keywords Animals; Apoptosis; Cell Cycle; Cell Lineage; *DNA Damage; *DNA Repair; Humans; Hypoxia; Mitochondria/pathology; Oxidation-Reduction; *Oxidative Stress; Reactive Oxygen Species  
  Abstract The DNA damage response is a hierarchical process. DNA damage is detected by sensor proteins such as the MRN complex that transmit the information to transducer proteins such as ATM and ATR, which control the damage response through the phosphorylation of effector proteins. The extent of the DNA damage determines cell fate: cell cycle arrest and DNA repair or the activation of apoptotic pathways. In aerobic cells, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated as a by-product of normal mitochondrial activity. If not properly controlled, ROS can cause severe damage to cellular macromolecules, especially the DNA. We describe here some of the cellular responses to alterations in the cellular redox state during hypoxia or oxidative stress. Oxidative damage in DNA is repaired primarily via the base excision repair (BER) pathway which appears to be the simplest of the three excision repair pathways. To allow time for DNA repair, the cells activate their cell cycle checkpoints, leading to cell cycle arrest and preventing the replication of damage and defective DNA.  
  Call Number Serial 1707  
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Author (up) Binder, E.; Droste, S.K.; Ohl, F.; Reul, J.M.H.M. file  url
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  Title Regular voluntary exercise reduces anxiety-related behaviour and impulsiveness in mice Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Behavioural Brain Research Abbreviated Journal Behav Brain Res  
  Volume 155 Issue 2 Pages 197-206  
  Keywords Adaptation, Psychological; Animals; Anxiety/*psychology; *Choice Behavior; *Exploratory Behavior; Impulsive Behavior/*psychology; Male; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Physical Conditioning, Animal/*psychology  
  Abstract We embarked on a study to delineate the behavioural changes in mice after 4 weeks of voluntary exercise. As an initial behavioural characterization, we exposed the control and exercising mice to a modified hole board and an open field test. As compared to control mice, exercising animals showed clear signs of increased behavioural inhibition (e.g. a longer latency to enter unprotected areas), suggesting increased anxiety in these animals. In addition, the exercising mice were reluctant to spend time in the open field's centre during the beginning of the 30-min open field test, but compensated for this at later times. Paradoxically, the exercising animals showed more rearings on the board of the modified hole board, indicating decreased anxiety. Thus, the behavioural inhibition seen in exercising mice is likely to represent decreased stress responsiveness at the behavioural level which can also be interpreted as reduced impulsiveness. To clarify whether voluntary exercise evolves in more or less anxiety-related behaviour, we exposed animals to the elevated plus-maze and the dark-light box, two selective tests for unconditioned anxiety. Clearly, compared to the control animals, exercising mice spent significantly more time on the open arm of the plus-maze and spent double the amount of time in the light compartment of the dark-light box. Taken together, we conclude that long-term voluntary exercise appears to result in decreased anxiety-related behaviour and impulsiveness. Thus, our observations fit into the concept that regular exercise strengthens endogenous stress coping mechanisms, thereby protecting the organism against the deleterious effects of stress.  
  Call Number Serial 396  
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Author (up) Brabin, B.J.; Romagosa, C.; Abdelgalil, S.; Menendez, C.; Verhoeff, F.H.; McGready, R.; Fletcher, K.A.; Owens, S.; D'Alessandro, U.; Nosten, F.; Fischer, P.R.; Ordi, J. file  url
openurl 
  Title The sick placenta-the role of malaria Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Placenta Abbreviated Journal Placenta  
  Volume 25 Issue 5 Pages 359-378  
  Keywords Cytokines/immunology; Female; Fetal Growth Retardation/etiology/parasitology; Fetal Weight; Humans; Immunity, Cellular/immunology; Immunity, Maternally-Acquired/immunology; Immunohistochemistry; Infant, Low Birth Weight; Infant, Newborn; Malaria/immunology/*pathology; Malaria, Falciparum/immunology/*pathology; Malaria, Vivax/immunology/pathology; Placenta/immunology/pathology/physiopathology; Placenta Diseases/immunology/*pathology; Pregnancy; Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic; Premature Birth/epidemiology/etiology/parasitology  
  Abstract The human placenta is an ideal site for the accumulation of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites, and as a consequence serious health problems arise for the mother and her baby. The pathogenesis of placental malaria is only partially understood, but it is clear that it leads to a distinct epidemiological pattern of malaria during pregnancy. The objectives of this review are: (1) To review recent data on the epidemiology of malaria in pregnancy, with emphasis on placental malaria; (2) to describe the pathological changes and immunological factors related to placental malaria; and (3) to discuss briefly the functional consequences of this infection for the mother and her baby. The review attempts to bring together local events at the maternal-fetal interface which encompass immunological and pathological processes which relate to the epidemiological pattern of malaria in pregnancy in areas of both high and low malaria transmission. An integrated understanding of the epidemiological, immunological and pathological processes must be achieved in order to understand how to control malaria in pregnancy. The yearly exposure of at least 50 million pregnancies to malaria infection makes it the commonest and most recurrent parasitic infection directly affecting the placenta. These statistics and our limited understanding of its pathogenesis suggest the research priorities on this subject.  
  Call Number Serial 147  
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Author (up) Cavedini, P.; Bassi, T.; Ubbiali, A.; Casolari, A.; Giordani, S.; Zorzi, C.; Bellodi, L. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Neuropsychological investigation of decision-making in anorexia nervosa Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Psychiatry Research Abbreviated Journal Psychiatry Res  
  Volume 127 Issue 3 Pages 259-266  
  Keywords Adult; Analysis of Variance; Anorexia Nervosa/diagnosis/*psychology; Body Mass Index; Bulimia/epidemiology/psychology; Cognition Disorders/*diagnosis/*etiology; *Decision Making; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; Female; Gambling/psychology; Humans; Male; Neuropsychological Tests; Severity of Illness Index  
  Abstract Anorexia nervosa (AN) could be considered a form of obsessive-compulsive disorder in which an impairment of the cognitive domain related to decision-making was found. We explored this function in AN patients, as well as possible differences between restricting type and binge/purge type, with the aim of examining the hypothesis that AN is part of the obsessive-compulsive spectrum. Decision-making was assessed in 59 inpatients with AN and 82 control subjects using the Gambling task, which simulates real-life decision-making by assessing the ability to balance immediate rewards against long-term negative consequences. We confirmed the supposed deficit of decision-making in AN. However, restricting and binge eating/purge subtypes showed different patterns of decision-making impairment. Poor performance on the Gambling task is not a mere consequence of starvation and does not appear to be related to illness severity. The decision-making deficiency that some AN patients show is linked to those individual features that contribute to the phenomenological expression of the disorder.  
  Call Number Serial 91  
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Author (up) Cecic Erpic, S.; Wylleman, P.; Zupancic, M. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title The effect of athletic and non-athletic factors on the sports career termination process Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Psychology of Sport and Exercise Abbreviated Journal Psychology of Sport and Exercise  
  Volume 5 Issue 1 Pages 45-59  
  Keywords Sports career termination; Non-athletic transitions; Athletic factors; Athletic retirement; Post-sports life  
  Abstract Objectives: To investigate the way in which the quality of sports career termination process is affected by athletic and non-athletic factors. Influence of athletic (voluntariness and gradualness of sports career termination, subjective evaluation of athletic achievements, post-sports life planning, and athletic identity) and non-athletic factors (age, educational status, positive and negative non-athletic transitions) on different aspects of sports career difficulties is presented.

Method: Participants were 85 former elite Slovene athletes (aged 21–44 years) who had been retired for less than 4 years, ending a sports career at international or national level in one of 16 Olympic sports. Participants were presented with two questionnaires, including the Sports Career Termination Questionnaire assessing participants’ perceptions of the characteristics of the sports career process, and the Non-athletic Transitions Questionnaire assessing participants’ perceptions of the influence of non-athletic events and transitions on the quality of life.

Results: The quality of the sports career termination process depends on the voluntariness of career termination, participants’ subjective evaluation of athletic achievements, the prevalence of athletic identity, educational status, and the occurrence of negative non-athletic transitions.

Conclusions: The understanding of the sports career termination process, which incorporates both, athletic and non-athletic aspects, provides a more complex and multifaceted perspective of the course of athletic retirement and adaptation to post-sports life.
 
  Call Number Serial 631  
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Author (up) Claussen, D.L.; Snashall, J.; Barden, C. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Effects of slope, substrate, and temperature on forces associated with locomotion of the ornate box turtle, Terrapene ornata Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology Abbreviated Journal Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol  
  Volume 138 Issue 3 Pages 269-276  
  Keywords Animals; Locomotion/*physiology; Temperature; Turtles/*physiology  
  Abstract In spite of several studies of the locomotor performances of reptiles, we know as yet relatively little about the mechanical forces involved. The present investigation examined the effects of substrate, slope and temperature on the pulling forces exerted by ornate box turtles tethered to a force transducer. These forces increased with body mass in a nearly isometric manner. The forces exerted during the initial effort were greatest on a styrofoam substrate, whereas maximum forces generated were greatest on pea gravel. Both forces progressively increased as slope decreased from +30 degrees to -30 degrees. The rate of force generation (N/s) was greatest at intermediate slopes. Contact force tended to increase as normal force increased, and was strongly influenced by slope, increasing from -30 degrees to +30 degrees. Surprisingly, we found no significant effects of temperature on tether forces, contraction times, or rates. This evaluation of pulling forces associated with box turtle locomotion revealed some interesting, and at times unexpected, relationships.  
  Call Number Serial 128  
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