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Author (up) Adachi, R.; Osada, H.; Shingai, R. file  url
  Title Phase-dependent preference of thermosensation and chemosensation during simultaneous presentation assay in Caenorhabditis elegans Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication BMC Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal BMC Neurosci  
  Volume 9 Issue Pages 106  
  Keywords Animals; Caenorhabditis elegans; Chemotactic Factors; Chemotaxis--physiology; Choice Behavior; Cold Temperature; Pentanols; Psychomotor Performance--physiology; Sensation; Sensory Receptor Cells--physiology; Sodium Chloride; Thermosensing--physiology  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Multi-sensory integration is necessary for organisms to discriminate different environmental stimuli and thus determine behavior. Caenorhabditis elegans has 12 pairs of amphid sensory neurons, which are involved in generating behaviors such as thermotaxis toward cultivation temperature, and chemotaxis toward chemical stimuli. This arrangement of known sensory neurons and measurable behavioral output makes C. elegans suitable for addressing questions of multi-sensory integration in the nervous system. Previous studies have suggested that C. elegans can process different chemoattractants simultaneously. However, little is known about how these organisms can integrate information from stimuli of different modality, such as thermal and chemical stimuli. RESULTS: We studied the behavior of a population of C. elegans during simultaneous presentation of thermal and chemical stimuli. First, we examined thermotaxis within the radial temperature gradient produced by a feedback-controlled thermoregulator. Separately, we examined chemotaxis toward sodium chloride or isoamyl alcohol. Then, assays for simultaneous presentations of 15 degrees C (colder temperature than 20 degrees C room temperature) and chemoattractant were performed with 15 degrees C-cultivated wild-type worms. Unlike the sum of behavioral indices for each separate behavior, simultaneous presentation resulted in a biased migration to cold regions in the first 10 min of the assay, and sodium chloride-regions in the last 40 min. However, when sodium chloride was replaced with isoamyl alcohol in the simultaneous presentation, the behavioral index was very similar to the sum of separate single presentation indices. We then recorded tracks of single worms and analyzed their behavior. For behavior toward sodium chloride, frequencies of forward and backward movements in simultaneous presentation were significantly different from those in single presentation. Also, migration toward 15 degrees C in simultaneous presentation was faster than that in 15 degrees C-single presentation. CONCLUSION: We conclude that worms preferred temperature to chemoattractant at first, but preferred the chemoattractant sodium chloride thereafter. This preference was not seen for isoamyl alcohol presentation. We attribute this phase-dependent preference to the result of integration of thermosensory and chemosensory signals received by distinct sensory neurons.  
  Call Number Serial 262  
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Author (up) Adachi, R.; Wakabayashi, T.; Oda, N.; Shingai, R. file  url
  Title Modulation of Caenorhabditis elegans chemotaxis by cultivation and assay temperatures Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Neuroscience Research Abbreviated Journal Neurosci Res  
  Volume 60 Issue 3 Pages 300-306  
  Keywords Ammonium Chloride; Animals; Behavior, Animal/*physiology; Caenorhabditis elegans/*physiology; Chemoreceptor Cells/physiology; Chemotaxis/*physiology; Neurons, Afferent/*physiology; Sodium Acetate; Stimulation, Chemical; *Temperature  
  Abstract The chemotaxis behaviors of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans cultivated at various temperatures (15 degrees C, 20 degrees C and 25 degrees C) were examined at various temperatures (10 degrees C, 15 degrees C, 20 degrees C and 25 degrees C) to determine the multi-sensory integration of physical (thermal) and chemical sensory information within its nervous system. Chemotaxis behavior toward sodium acetate and ammonium chloride were differently affected by both assay and cultivation temperatures, suggesting that the temperature effect on chemotaxis is not general, but rather distinctive for each chemosensory pathway. Since thermosensory cues are likely encountered constantly in C. elegans, we supposed that the chemotaxis behaviors of worms are achieved by the integration of chemo- and thermosensory information. To verify the possible contribution of thermosensory function in chemotaxis, we examined the chemotaxis behaviors of ttx-1(p767) mutant worms with defective AFD thermosensory neurons. The chemotaxis behaviors toward sodium acetate or ammonium chloride of mutant worms cultivated at 20 degrees C and 25 degrees C were reduced relative to those of wild-type worms. These results indicate the important role of multi-sensory integration of chemosensory and thermosensory information in chemotaxis behavior of the C. elegans.  
  Call Number Serial 1025  
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Author (up) Airoldi, L.; Balata, D.; Beck, M.W. file  url
  Title The Gray Zone: Relationships between habitat loss and marine diversity and their applications in conservation Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology Abbreviated Journal Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology  
  Volume 366 Issue 1-2 Pages 8-15  
  Keywords Conservation; Habitat loss; Marine systems; Species diversity  
  Abstract Structurally complex habitats are becoming rarer across temperate marine environments; indeed the coastal and marine world is getting flatter. In some cases marine habitats are lost entirely (e.g., wetlands are filled), but in many cases the loss is a gradual transition from a more complex to a less complex habitat (i.e., a change from canopy-forming to turf forming algae). We explore the multiple ways habitat loss affects marine species diversity, and propose a conceptual model that identifies the main interactions and feedbacks between these processes. The loss of habitat structure generally leads to lower abundances (biomasses) and often to declines in species richness. There is often also a suite of colonizing species that prosper from these transitions. These sets of expanding species can amplify the changes to the system, cause variable effects on species richness and other components of diversity, feed back to affect the various components of habitat loss (e.g. maintain new environmental conditions) and prevent the recovery of the system. Less well studied are the effects on between-habitat (β) diversity and functional diversity. We argue that we need to understand these latter changes to better manage and conserve the structure and function of ecosystems and the diverse services that humans continue to expect from them. Calling for more of the approaches and thinking that John Gray championed we discuss how this work can focus efforts in research, conservation, restoration and management.  
  Call Number Serial 1750  
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Author (up) Ansaldo, A.I.; Marcotte, K.; Scherer, L.; Raboyeau, G. file  url
  Title Language therapy and bilingual aphasia: Clinical implications of psycholinguistic and neuroimaging research Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Journal of Neurolinguistics Abbreviated Journal Journal of Neurolinguistics  
  Volume 21 Issue 6 Pages 539-557  
  Keywords Bilingual aphasia; Therapy; Data-driven  
  Abstract Given the increasing number of bilinguals around the world, bilingual aphasia has become a hot topic in the field of clinical and theoretical research in communication sciences. The aim of this article is to provide data-driven cues for intervention with bilingual aphasia. First, the impact of a number of factors considered to influence second language processing will be discussed with reference to neurolinguistic and neuroimaging data. The discussion will then move to bilingual aphasia. Specifically, we shall describe the recovery patterns following bilingual aphasia, and discuss the issues of pathological mixing and switching. The literature and clinical evidence will provide the framework for a discussion of data-driven cues for intervention with bilingual aphasia.  
  Call Number Serial 905  
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Author (up) Benarroch, E.E. file  url
  Title Metabotropic glutamate receptors: synaptic modulators and therapeutic targets for neurologic disease Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Neurology Abbreviated Journal Neurology  
  Volume 70 Issue 12 Pages 964-968  
  Keywords Allosteric Regulation/drug effects/physiology; Animals; Brain/drug effects/*metabolism/*physiopathology; Brain Diseases/drug therapy/*metabolism/*physiopathology; Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists/pharmacology/therapeutic use; Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists/pharmacology/therapeutic use; Glutamic Acid/*metabolism; Humans; Neural Pathways/drug effects/metabolism/physiopathology; Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate/drug effects/*metabolism; Synaptic Transmission/drug effects/physiology  
  Call Number Serial 326  
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Author (up) Bjork, J.; Albin, M.; Grahn, P.; Jacobsson, H.; Ardo, J.; Wadbro, J.; Ostergren, P.-O.; Skarback, E. file  url
  Title Recreational values of the natural environment in relation to neighbourhood satisfaction, physical activity, obesity and wellbeing Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health Abbreviated Journal Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health  
  Volume 62 Issue 4 Pages e2-e2  
  Keywords Recreational values; Physical activity; Obesity; Environment  
  Abstract Objectives: The aim of this population-based study was to investigate associations between recreational values of the close natural environment and neighbourhood satisfaction, physical activity, obesity and wellbeing.

Methods: Data from a large public health survey distributed as a mailed questionnaire in suburban and rural areas of southern Sweden were used (N  =  24 819; 59% participation rate). Geocoded residential addresses and the geographical information system technique were used to assess objectively five recreational values of the close natural environment: serene, wild, lush, spacious and culture.

Results: On average, a citizen of the Scania region, inner city areas excluded, only had access to 0.67 recreational values within 300 metres distance from their residence. The number of recreational values near the residence was strongly associated with neighbourhood satisfaction and physical activity. The effect on satisfaction was especially marked among tenants and the presence of recreational values was associated with low or normal body mass index in this group. A less marked positive association with vitality among women was observed. No evident effect on self-rated health was detectable.

Conclusions: Immediate access to natural environments with high recreational values was rare in the study population and was distributed in an inequitable manner. Moreover, such access was associated with a positive assessment of neighbourhood satisfaction and time spent on physical activity, which can be expected to reduce obesity and increase vitality by having a buffering effect on stress.
  Call Number Serial 2130  
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Author (up) Bohn, M.T.; Matsumoto, Y. file  url
  Title Young women in the Meiji period as linguistic trendsetters Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Gender and Language Abbreviated Journal genl  
  Volume 2 Issue 1 Pages  
  Keywords Normative speech; Japanese women; Cultural expressions  
  Abstract The normative speech associated with Japanese women today has been identified as a product of the Meiji government's modernization project in the early twentieth century. In this article, we examine the speech style in question, which is found in novels, magazines, and other print media during the Meiji period (1868-1912), in conjunction with other notable expressions of the time (e.g. foreign borrowings). We also examine other cultural expressions of femininity, for example, female students' clothing and hairstyle. The analysis reveals that female students' speech style that is now categorized as 'feminine' was part of the vernacular, rather than emanating from the context of the school, as is generally asserted. It was criticized by older linguistic norm holders (e.g. educators, novelists) as being coarse, crude and unladylike, in contrast to upper-class women's speech in the preceding Edo period. Drawing comparisons with the linguistic innovation of current young Japanese women, we suggest that young female speakers of the Meiji period can be viewed as the trendsetters of the era, not simply as passive targets of ideological conditioning.  
  Call Number Serial 1520  
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Author (up) Bowler, D.M.; Gaigg, S.B.; Gardiner, J.M. file  url
  Title Effects of related and unrelated context on recall and recognition by adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Neuropsychologia Abbreviated Journal Neuropsychologia  
  Volume 46 Issue 4 Pages 993-999  
  Keywords Adult; Association Learning--physiology; Autistic Disorder--physiopathology, psychology; Female; Humans; Intelligence; Intelligence Tests; Male; Mental Recall--physiology; Middle Aged; Neuropsychological Tests; Recognition (Psychology)--physiology  
  Abstract Memory in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterised by greater difficulties with recall rather than recognition and with a diminished use of semantic or associative relatedness in the aid of recall. Two experiments are reported that test the effects of item-context relatedness on recall and recognition in adults with high-functioning ASD (HFA) and matched typical comparison participants. In both experiments, participants studied words presented inside a red rectangle and were told to ignore context words presented outside the rectangle. Context words were either related or unrelated to the study words. The results showed that relatedness of context enhanced recall for the typical group only. However, recognition was enhanced by relatedness in both groups of participants. On a behavioural level, these findings confirm the Task Support Hypothesis [Bowler, D. M., Gardiner, J. M., & Berthollier, N. (2004). Source memory in Asperger's syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 533-542], which states that individuals with ASD will show greater difficulty on memory tests that provide little support for retrieval. The findings extend this hypothesis by showing that it operates at the level of relatedness between studied items and incidentally encoded context. By showing difficulties in memory for associated items, the findings are also consistent with conjectures that implicate medial temporal lobe and frontal lobe dysfunction in the memory difficulties of individuals with ASD.  
  Call Number Serial 57  
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Author (up) Burt, S.A.; Barnes, A.R.; McGue, M.; Iacono, W.G. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Parental divorce and adolescent delinquency: ruling out the impact of common genes Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Developmental Psychology Abbreviated Journal Dev Psychol  
  Volume 44 Issue 6 Pages 1668-1677  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adoption/psychology; Aggression/psychology; Antisocial Personality Disorder/epidemiology/*genetics/psychology; Causality; Conduct Disorder/epidemiology/*genetics/psychology; Cross-Sectional Studies; Divorce/*psychology/statistics & numerical data; Female; Genotype; Humans; Internal-External Control; Juvenile Delinquency/*psychology/statistics & numerical data; Male; Risk Factors; Sex Factors; *Social Environment  
  Abstract Although the well-documented association between parental divorce and adolescent delinquency is generally assumed to be environmental (i.e., causal) in origin, genetic mediation is also possible. Namely, the behavior problems often found in children of divorce could derive from similar pathology in the parents, pathology that is both heritable and increases the risk that the parent will experience divorce. To test these alternative hypotheses, the authors made use of a novel design that incorporated timing of divorce in a sample of 610 adoptive and biological families. They reasoned that if genes common to parent and child mediate this association, nonadopted youth should manifest increased delinquency in the presence of parental divorce even if the divorce preceded their birth (i.e., was from a prior parental relationship). However, should the association be environmental in origin, the authors reasoned that adolescents should manifest increased delinquency only in response to divorce exposure, and this association should not vary by adoption status. Results firmly supported the latter, suggesting that it is the experience of parental divorce, and not common genes, that drives the association between divorce and adolescent delinquency.  
  Call Number Serial 293  
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Author (up) Castro, J.P. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Water services in Latin America: experiences with public private partnerships Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication International Journal of Water Abbreviated Journal Ijw  
  Volume 4 Issue 3/4 Pages 235  
  Keywords public?private partnerships, PPP, Millennium Development Goals, MDGs, Latin America, water supply, drinking water, sanitation, private sector involvement, PSI, water services  
  Abstract This paper analyses the appropriateness of public versus private models of providing and managing water and sanitation services. Better management practices, along with well-suited institutional arrangements, are needed to meet the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) on water supply and sanitation. There has been Private Sector Involvement (PSI) in the drinking water sector in the four cases studied in this paper: Buenos Aires, Cochabamba, Cartagena de Indias and Santiago de Chile. Each has its own particular history with regards to governance, the institutional arrangements and the particular socioeconomic conditions that were in place at the time of the PSI. The paper concludes that PSI in water services in Latin America may increase the possibility of reaching the targets established in the MDGs, but this can only happen if appropriate financial schemes for water tariffs are in tune with the consumers' ability to pay. Secondly, a solid institutional arrangement and a regulatory framework need to be in place, and finally there should be active citizen participation at the community level.  
  Call Number Serial 636  
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