Preterm birth and kidney disease: the risk

“Preterm birth (<37 gestational weeks) interrupts the development and maturation of the kidneys during a critical growth period. The third trimester of pregnancy is the most active period of fetal nephrogenesis [development of the kidney], during which more than 60% of nephrons [the functional units of the kidney] are formed.” Interruption of this process results in a lower nephron number that is lifelong. “Lower nephron…

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Cancer: is it part of evolution? What can we learn from cancer in animals?

Domestic and wild animals get cancer. Animals, like humans, see an increase in cancer when living in areas of heavy chemical contamination. But, some animal species rarely get cancer; why? And, if any cell could become cancerous, why don’t larger animals have a greater risk of cancer than smaller animals? Animals far larger than humans–like elephants–rarely get cancer. That must mean their cells somehow fight…

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Lack of sleep linked to cardiovascular problems

We know that sleep is vital for humans. Lack of sleep, sleep disruption, changes in sleep habits, and more can lead to real problems–physical and mental. For example, we know that not getting enough sleep leads to millions of lost work days and a huge annual economic loss … a problem especially severe in the United States. And, we know that sleep disruption and lack…

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The use of face masks/face shields to prevent transmission of COVID-19 and other infectious diseases–are they effective?

How effective is wearing face masks and/or face shields in preventing the transmission of COVID-19 and other infectious diseases? Recommendations in the United States, at least, have varied often depending upon who issued them–politicians or medical professionals. Quick bibliography: What does the research say about the effectiveness of wearing face masks and/or face shields to prevent the transmission of infectious diseases? *Bhaskar ME, Arun S….

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How far do COVID-19 particles travel from people who are infected?

Many governments have recommended social distancing guidelines of 6 feet (about 2 meters). A study using surface and air samples obtained in February and early March 2020 “from an intensive care unit (ICU) and a general COVID-19 ward [GW] at Huoshenshan Hospital in Wuhan, China” came to a different conclusion–a maximum transmission distance of about 13 feet. “The main transmission routes for SARS-CoV-2 [COVID-19] are…

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Is it necessary to take 10,000 steps per day for good health? Part 2

Another look at the association between the number of steps taken per day and health–as measured by the incidence of disease and death. “It is unclear whether the number of steps per day and the intensity of stepping are associated with lower mortality. Design, Setting, and Participants:  Representative sample of US adults aged at least 40 years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey…

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